Thursday, February 20, 2020

What is the role of Seaport Terminals in Maritime Transportation Assignment

What is the role of Seaport Terminals in Maritime Transportation - Assignment Example Port terminals are where goods are brought, loaded and unloaded and distributed to wherever they have to be sent. Seaport terminals provide service to container vessels and other sea vessels like barges and feeder vessels used in commercial fishing. Seaports serve international and global firms and have a role to play in international trade as a big bulk of world trade is transported by ship (Frankel, 1987 cited in Stevens, 1999, p. 43). Globalization has affected many world developments such as regional integration of countries like the European Union, the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the establishment of the World Trade Organization, and the homogenization of the world economy, to name a few. All these provide expansion for global firms. They expand business, and they need seaport terminals because they demand movements of goods. Global firms have the whole world as its market field that they can offer a wide array of products and services. Firms keep growing and continue to build products that have to be transported and marketed anywhere and anytime. Seaborne transportation is the cheapest means of transportation for goods that have to be transported to many parts of the world. This keeps seaports busy all throughout the year. With these facts, it can be understood that seaports have a very important role in the supply chain of businesses worldwide. This can be to fulfil business-to-business or business-to-consumer transactions. With globalization at the helm of businesses today, seaports are connecting a worldwide traffic of goods of different kinds. Supply chain management excellence is crucial for customer satisfaction, at the same time customer satisfaction is critical to customer loyalty, with loyalty being critical for profitability (Reichheld 1996 cited in Flint et al., 2008, p. 258). Supply chain has to

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Impact of Taxes and Human Capital on Private Client Portfolio Essay

Impact of Taxes and Human Capital on Private Client Portfolio Management - Essay Example Private clients in portfolio management tend to base their decisions on the overall tax burden, which creates a disincentive to engage in activities taxed at a higher rate (Parkin 56). Tax based income policies are policies that control inflation like the rate of increases in wages and the associated increase in prices through tax penalties and incentives. One of the main objectives of portfolio is to earn returns on the individual’s investment. Others include accumulation and preservation of capital. Tax policies and systems are potentially essential factors that determine private portfolio management because they too determine individual’s portfolio choices. These choices include the decision on whether to hold stocks, how much should be invested, and the period of time to be spent on speculation before the clients sell their securities. Moreover, different states offer different tax levels for the various available portfolio assets as well as incentives to encourage investment. Moreover, the tax policies and systems have significant effects on the number of private clients who will exploit the available investment opportunities. In addition, most of the countries embrace a tax system that treats all investors equally and offer private client’s incentives to stimulate their investments. Therefore, taxation has a significant effect on portfolio structure. There is clear evidence from research on how portfolios are greatly affected by tax rules. Similarly, evidence shows that human capital and other related tax policies and systems that the tendency of people to invest in portfolios depends on the investor’s perception on the tax-induced rewards, which are gained from investments. Whenever taxes increase in an economy, private clients become reluctant in investing because it becomes very hard to carry out any trade in a given location and therefore private investors tend to move to better places. Likewise, private clients have a tend ency of fearing direct investment in portfolios when substantial taxes are imposed by the government in order to reduce their expenses. Moreover, investors are quite sensitive to any increase or decrease in the marginal tax rates since this determines whether they will invest in portfolios or not. Introduction of transaction taxes by a government on trades and available investment opportunities has the ability to change the location of investors. Another implication of human capital on private client’s portfolio is that adjustments in the supply of capital to these households are costly especially due to the opportunity costs forgone. Therefore, a private client is more willing to invest in portfolios when there his or her human capital has a high rate of return or when there is maximum productivity on the invested capital. Therefore, availability and existence of human capital increases the rate of investment into portfolios as opposed to incidences when the households lack human capital. Recently, human capital has been highly debated and discussed by scholars due to its significance in portfolio choice. Furthermore, introduction of methods of control by the government also affects private clients indirectly since an increase in the tax rate on investments results into a decrease in the potential private investors. In fact, a significant reduction on taxes or