Monday, January 27, 2020
Porosity Architecture in Public Spaces Introduction The connection between the built and the unbuilt / between the Ã¢â¬Å"indoorÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"outdoorÃ¢â¬ / between the mass and the void is a very sensitive and debatable topic. The experience of a space can be severely affected by the ways its edges are treated, i.e. by controlling how a person enters/exits the space. Transitional experience plays a vital role in overall feel and experience of spaces. Different types of spaces require different types of treatments on their edge conditions. A city needs to be imagined as a space occupied by diverse sets of people with diverse needs and aspirations. The quality of a city has to be judged by what it offers to its residents the right to live, move around and work with dignity and safety. Porosity is one of the many guiding factors in designing a space, specially public places, which are the key strategic spaces in providing the area/city its character. Not only does careful design of such spaces increase the aesthetic quality of the place, but also plays a major role in increasing the standards of functionality, safety, quality and many such factors under which a city can be categorised. Porosity, is one spatial quality that can definitely benefit the public spaces, specially in places like Delhi, where the individual is getting isolated from the community in his efforts to cope up with the pace of life that the city has to offer. Also, with the increasing gap between the two extreme income groups of the city, the spaces, which are meant to be Ã¢â¬ËpublicÃ¢â¬â¢, cater only to a certain section of the society, neglecting those which fail to fulfil the Ã¢â¬Ëentrant requirementsÃ¢â¬â¢ . Apart from giving spaces back to all the sections of the society, increasing porosity in community spaces can also act as a measure against increasing crime rates in the city, as it opens up the space to a larger section of the society. Topic: Porosity in public spaces Research Question: How can porosity in public spaces be increased to enhance their utility for the society in general ? Public Spaces Public spaces are an inevitable component of human settlements. Parks, plazas, roads, beaches, etc are typically considered public spaces. They are the common ground for people to interact with others, share knowledge or goods, or carry out their daily rituals, be it daily routine or occasional festivities. By definition, they are spaces that should be accessible to all the members of the society, irrespective of their economic strength. It was stated that: Regarding the criterion of access, public space is a place which is open to all. This means its resources, the activities that take place in it, and information about it are available to everybody. Concerning the criterion of agency, public space is a place controlled by public actors (i.e., agents or agencies that act on behalf of a community, city, commonwealth or state) and used by the public (i.e., the people in general). As for interest, public space is a place which serves the public interest (i.e., its benefits are controlled and received by all members of the society) (Akkar, Z 2005). Ã Ã Of course, these definitions refer to an ideal public space, while the urban atmosphere is not entirely composed of rigidly public and private spaces; instead, it is an amalgamation of public and private spaces with different degrees of publicness. Accepting that the relation between public and private space is a continuum, it is possible to define public spaces as having various degrees of publicness. Regarding the dimensions of access, actor and interest, the extent of publicness will depend on three categories: the degree to which the public space and its resources, as well as the activities occurring in it and information about it, are available to all; the degree to which it is managed and controlled by public actors and used by the public; and the degree to which it serves the public interest. Life in public spaces, not only has a function in the society as a whole, but it is also a rich source of individual amusement, pleasure and play. One criticism of the prevailing socio-functional approach towards urban public space can be that the individuals perspective is often disregarded. To what extent do city dwellers like to meet other urbanites in public places? Hardly any planner, architect or urban administrator seems to be interested in that question. Planners and city councils are eager to speak about public spaces as meeting places. They find it an attractive idea to conceive of public spaces as a unifying element where all sectors of the urban population meet. With the help of that image they can present their cities as communities, despite all the contrasts and differences. Most social scientists dealing with urban public space also tend to regard processes that take place in the public realm as a contribution to the social organization, as a fulfilment of societal nee ds. This top-down-view, however, neglects the daily users perspective. Do city dwellers wish to get together with all their co-urbanites? Everybody who has ever been in a city knows the answer: no, certainly not with everyone. On the other hand, it cannot be denied that at least some individuals derive great pleasure from being in public. Whether a space will function well depends on a range of aspects that include scale, use, safety and comfort, density and links. In many cases it is the individuals experience of walking or dancing down a street, and the quality of environment, that is the most important element. Design then becomes about maximizing choice and trying to provide for different individuals goals. Mitchell, D (1995) adds another dimension to public space by putting forward the point that public spaces are also, and very importantly, spaces for representation. That is, public space is a place within which a political movement can stake out the space that allows it to be seen. In public space, political organizations can represent themselves to a larger population. By claiming space in public, by creating public spaces, social groups themselves become public. Only in public spaces can the homeless, for example, represent themselves as a legitimate part of the publicÃ¢â¬ Public sphere is best imag- ined as the suite of institutions and activities that mediate the relations between society and the state (Howell 1993). Problems with public spaces Despite the resurgence of interest in public spaces, urban design and planning litera- ture has frequently hinted at the diminishing publicness of public spaces in modern cities. Some researchers have pointed out the threat of recent privatization policies, and claimed that public spaces, traditionally open to all segments of the population, are increasingly being developed and managed by private agencies to produce profit for the private sector and serve the interests of particular sections of the population (Punter, J 1990). Others have commented on the high degree of control now maintained over access and use of public spaces through surveillance cameras and other measures intended to improve their security (Reeve, A 1996). Still others have argued that contemporary public spaces increasingly serve a homogenous public and promote social filtering. These open-access public spaces are precious because they enable city residents to move about and engage in recreation and face-to-face communication. But, because an open-access space is one everyone can enter, public spaces are classic sites for tragedy, to invoke Garrett Hardins famous metaphor for a commons (H, Garrrett 1968, cited Ellickson, R 1996) A space that all can enter, however, is a space that each is tempted to abuse. Societies therefore impose rules-of-the-road for public spaces. While these rules are increasingly articulated in legal codes, most begin as informal norms of public etiquette (Taylor, R 1984, cited Ellickson, R 1996). Rules of proper street behaviour are not an impediment to freedom, but a foundation of it (Ellickson, R 1996) Oosterman, J (1992), in his journal Play and Entertainment in Urban Public Space: The Example of the Sidewalk CafÃ ©, points out that since 1989, several cities and towns in the Netherlands have invested millions of guilders in the design and redesign of plazas, streets and parks. These designs are also meant to have a social impact. Many discussion sessions are held about the nature of social life in urban public space and its function in the greater urban society. This is the case in debates among policy-makers and planners as well as among social scientists and architects. Although the concepts used in these sessions do not always deserve a prize for clarity, some characteristics appear through the haze: urban public places should be accessible, or even democratic places. Other participants in the discussion about public space do not share this belief in the possibilities of changing urban society by changing its public spaces. Richard Sennett (1990, p.201) for example is rather pessimistic in his latest book The Conscience of the Eye. People no longer seem to be able to cope with the social and cultural differences of the modern city. They maintain their network of personal relations within physically and visibly segregated social worlds: sealed communities as he calls them. According to Sennett, urban public spaces cannot bridge the gap between those worlds, even though they are supposed to do so. Today one cannot open a book about public space design without coming across a picture of either the Piazza San Marco in Venice or the Campo in Siena: two beautifully designed plazas referring to the romantic ideal of free, accessible public space, where everybody meets anybody. Comparing their idealistic model of a real public space with the contemporary city makes authors like Habermas and Sennett rather pessimistic about contemporary urban culture. The citys urban territory is too privatized and inaccessible. This pessimism is not surprising. Over time, the scale of society grew, the mobility of the population increased and new means of communication developed and disseminated among the population. These and other conditions led to different claims on urban public spaces Solutions William H. Whyte argues that cities should exert no controls on undesirables, including beggars and aggressive eccentrics. In his words:The biggest single obstacle to the provision of better spaces is the undesirables problem. They are themselves not too much of a problem. It is the actions taken to combat them that is the problem. The people have the right freely to assemble together, to consult for the common good, to make known their opinions to their representatives and to petition for redress of grievances. In their study with the Jagori, Kalpana Viswanath and Surabhi Tandon Mehrotra concluded that Womens ability and right to access and use public spaces is dependent on the kinds of boundaries imposed upon them due to nature of the space and its usage. Thus having a mixed usage of space is more conducive to free and easy access. Very strict zoning leads to separation of spaces for living, commerce and leisure. This increases the likelihood of some spaces being closed to women and other vulnerable groups such as children. For example in Delhi, we ( Viswanath, K Mehrotra,S) found that vendors selling everyday items make a space safer, whether in the subway, residential areas or bus stops. The local bread and egg seller gave a sense of comfort to women who returned home at night. Similarly vendors provided light and a crowd around bus stops which tend to become increasingly empty and dark as it gets later. But this phenomenon of safety provided by the hawkers is not understood by all govt authorities. Anjaria, J (2006) tells the story of condition of street hawkers in Mumbai. They are frequently described by civic activists, municipal officials and journalists as a nuisance; and are seen to represent the chaos of the citys streets and the cause of the citys notorious congestion. On the other hand, to others they represent an undeserved claim of the poor on the citys public spaces. This despite the fact that even a cursory look at the citys streets and footpaths shows that parked, privately-owned cars are by far the citys greatest encroachers of public space, and the greatest obstruction to the movement of pedestrians. However. to the self-proclaimed defenders of public space, the civic activists and the NGOs bent on removing hawkers from the citys streets, these facts are irrelevant. Neighbourhood by neighbourhood, the citys footpaths must be reconfigured, disorderly footpaths must be made monofunctional. The crime of the hawker is to contradict this dream. And, thus they have become a public nuisance because, by working on the street, they are engaged in an activity that contradicts the supposed universal ideals of the modern public space. The question may be how do we bring the ethos of privatized space that we have become used to together with the return to more democratic values that many people aspire to for the Millennium? Kath Shonfield in her recent contribution to the Demos series on the Richness of Cities (Shonfield, 1998) focuses on public space and what she calls the new urbanity. She promotes the urban right to roam and suggests change to urban policy that would include urban rights to access, extending public access as a principle of new developments, and re visiting the idea of the arcade as an urban design model to be explored. (cited Jon, R 1999) In order to shape the design, size and form of public spaces in town centres, it is necessary to understand their roles and functions. Public spaces in town centres can be classified in two broad categories: links and nodes. Links are roads, pavements or pedestrianized areas which constitute routes allowing movement between land uses and attractions. Nodes are cross roads where a number of links meet in the form of public spaces such as market squares or plazas. There have been different models of gender conscious planning adopted by cities to respond to violence against women and womens fear of violence. The broken windows approach focuses on zero-tolerance to crime, closed circuit televisions (CCTV) and an exclusionary approach to creating safer spaces [Mitchell, D 2003]. This approach criminalises certain kinds of people and behaviour such as gay men. The safer communities model on the other hand, puts forth a vision of making public spaces safer through activities, land use, social mix and involving users in designing strategies and initiatives for safer public spaces. These are seen to be more conducive to building ownership rather than the top-down approach of the broken windows. The safer communities initiatives emphasise activity, land use and social mix (Whitzman, C 2006, cited Viswanath, K and Mehrotra, S 2007) Stavros Stavrides (2007) says: Instead of thinking of social identities as bounded regions one can consider them as interdependent and communicating areas. In an effort to describe urban space as a process rather than a series of physical entities, we can discover practices that oppose a dominant will to fix spatial meanings and uses. These practices mould space and create new spatial articulations since they tend to produce threshold spaces, those in-between areas that relate rather than separate. Urban porosity may be the result of such practices that perforate a secluding perimeter, providing us with an alternative model to the modern city of urban enclaves. A city of thresholds could thus represent the spatiality of a public culture of mutually aware, interdependent and involved identities. Walter Benjamin, in his essay entitled Naples, explored the idea of vitality and variety in the modern city. The porous rocks of Naples offered him an image for a cityÃ¢â¬â¢s public life: Ã¢â¬Å"As porous as this stone is the architecture. Building and action interpenetrate in the courtyards, arcades and stairwaysÃ¢â¬ (Benjamin,W 1985). Porosity seems to describe, in this passage, the way in which urban space is performed in the process of being appropriated (Sennett 1995). It is not that action is contained in space. Rather, a rich network of practices transforms every available space into a potential theater of expressive acts of encounter. A Ã¢â¬Å"passion for improvisationÃ¢â¬ as Benjamin describes this public behavior, penetrates and articulates urban space, loosening socially programmed correspondences between function and place. Porosity is thus an essential characteristic of space in Naples because life in the city is full of acts that overflow into each other. Defyin g any clear demarcation, spaces are separated and simultaneously connected by porous boundaries, through which everyday life takes form in mutually dependant public performances. Thus, Ã¢â¬Å"just as the living room reappears on the street, with chairs, hearth and altar, so, only much more loudly, the street migrates into the living roomÃ¢â¬ (Benjamin 1985). Porosity characterizes above all the relationship between private and public space, as well as the relationship between indoor and outdoor space. For Benjamin porosity is not limited to spatial experience. Urban life is not only located in spaces that communicate through passages (Ã¢â¬Å"poresÃ¢â¬ ), but life is performed in a tempo that fails to completely separate acts or events. A temporal porosity is experienced while eating in the street, taking a nap in a shady corner, or drinking a quick espresso standing in a Neapolitan cafÃ ©. It is as if acts are both separated and connected through temporal passages that represe nt the precarious fleeting experience of occasion. Everyday occasions thus seem to shift and rearrange rhythms and itineraries of use (de Certeau 1984). only located in spaces that communicate through passages (Ã¢â¬Å"poresÃ¢â¬ ), but life is performed in a tempo that fails to completely separate acts or events. A temporal porosity is experienced while eating in the street, taking a nap in a shady corner, or drinking a quick espresso. It is as if acts are both separated and connected through temporal passages that represent the precarious fleeting experience of occasion. Everyday occasions thus seem to shift and rearrange rhythms and itineraries of use (de Certeau 1984, cited Stavrides, S 2007) According to Starvides, Porosity may therefore be considered an experience of habitation, which articulates urban life while it also loosens the borders which are erected to preserve a strict spatial and temporal social order. Thresholds, thus play an important role in materialising the play of connection and sepration between spaces. A study of thresholds can help reveal the actual correspondence and interdependence between spatial identities. In post-colonial Asian cities like Hong Kong similar conditions of urban porosity exist. Hong Kongs urban environment is devoid of the cultural conditions that mark the traditional world cities of the West. There are no memorable public spaces, no refined residential fabric, and no exemplary monuments to religion, politics, art, knowledge or culture. Ã¢â¬Å"Urban life in Hong Kong is traditionally linear in form. The roles of parks, piazzas and gardens in Hong Kong take on functions that change with the time of the day. They are by nature multipurpose spaces, festival grounds, concert sites, and improvised sports arenas. While these open spaces are fully utilized in key times, they lack any identity and are usually barren and lifeless when not in use.Ã¢â¬ (Lu, L 2005)
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Diversification Economy in Las Vegas Ã¢â¬Å"Las Vegas is lagging behind many cities in the recovery because we were in much worse shape than most cities,Ã¢â¬ David Christianson, who is a TCA 449 professor in University of Nevada, Las Vegas who is a knowledgeable international tourism professor said so in my personal interview, Ã¢â¬Å"Since we are a mono economy, any kind of diversification would be helpful. Ã¢â¬ The dominating economy in Las Vegas are from gaming, tourism, convention and meeting, which then could support and develop the restaurant industry. Therefore, the economy of Las Vegas needs diversification to develop deeply.The economy of Las Vegas relies on consumer spending; however it has not yet recovered since the economic crisis in 2008, this is due to that this city relies so much on discretionary spending which lead to the result that its recovery will be slower than the rest of the country. For this reason, Las Vegas needs diversification economy moreover needs to seek some environmental-friendly industries that will not bring burden to the gambling town environment. Diversification economy wills bring more profit, government revenues, export income and employment.Many people said that tough Las Vegas need diversification economy, there is no industry fit for Las Vegas. They think if we want to set up new industry in Las Vegas will cost much money and get a little bit benefit. Anyway, the diversification economy is the best way to annihilate poverty. The diversification economy in Las Vegas can bring many benefits. The first thing can increase economy. The social development pattern let us know the growth of economy is not everything gets development, but it is the heart of development.The economy development is the best way to solve unemployment crisis, it can provide more job for people, at the same time, and people can get higher salary. People have money will promote the consumption level. Moreover, it is means higher tax rate. Becaus e of higher tax rate, the government will have more budgets. Therefore, people will have better hospital, better university, and better public utility. And also the government will promote the development of infrastructure and manufacturing.Someone will say lots of investment can increase economy, but this is not a persistent thing. We know that the American housing crisis is a negative example. If we want to make our Las Vegas become rich city must set up some real industry can make money for Las Vegas, according to Henny, from his essay Ã¢â¬Å"China land price fall threatens local financesÃ¢â¬ , he said most small cities, poor cities, they lack of diversification economy. The heart of development is economy, if we donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a good economy how we can develop entertainment, education, and tourist industry.Chinese always say economy is the foundation of a large building, if the foundation not good, the building will collapse, when the building collapsed if we want to rebuil d it, we need pay more money and attention to rebuild it. It is the reason why the Chinese increase rapidly. Diversification economy in Las Vegas can promote the equity among people. Diversification economy brings many job and higher salary. Therefore, the gap between rich and poor will be shortened. Moreover, it will promote the benign competition. The equity can create a good social environment in Las Vegas.It will reduce crime, less beggar and also make people have a better situation in heart. The happiness will at a high level in Las Vegas. According to the UN general secretary Ban Ki moon in World Day of Social Justice in 20 Feb 2011 what he said is social equity not only the ethic, but also it is groundwork of social and countryÃ¢â¬â¢s prosperity. We cannot ignore benefit of equity in diversification economy. If there is high quality equity in Las Vegas, the right of culture, political, economy and education will get better protection. In other words the equity is the founda tion of harmony.The diversification economy also brings the stability. Firstly, is the social stability, the high unemployment in Las Vegas could cause seriously threat to social stability. Consequently, Las Vegas should build more industry reduce the unemployment rate. Chinese think about the 8 percent economic growth is the best rate to protect the social stability. Secondly, is the economic stability, Las Vegas only rely on the hospitality industry, it is not stability. Like above mentioned, Macao is exceed Las Vegas in hospitality industry recent years.On the other hand, hospitality has off season, when the off season comes, what can support economy in Las Vegas? In order to let us Las Vegas being alive, Las Vegas needs more different industry to support the economy, it is insurance for long term economic development. Las Vegas diversification economy will promote production capacity. If Las Vegas has diversification economy, there are many industries and factories, the quantity of products will increase. Meanwhile at the same time, Las Vegas will have more contribution for GDP in United Stated. It is means Las Vegas will have more budgets and expand the ity scale. I remembered I learned the definition of production capacity in my Chinese high school is that the ability of human beings to change the nature. If we have diversification economy in Las Vegas we will have a stronger ability to change the nature, we can use more nature resource make more products for the human beings society in the new industry and factory in Las Vegas. As you see, the production capacity which bring by diversification economy can be ignored. It is also a big benefit. The last benefit is widely known, of course, it is the employment opportunities.The diversification economy will bring many new industry and new factory in Las Vegas. Therefore, there are many new job opportunities for people in Las Vegas. On other hand, Las Vegas will attract many people come from all over the wor ld to find a good job and settled down in Las Vegas. It will promote Las Vegas become a larger city, if many people settled down in Las Vegas and work in Las Vegas. We always heard something like this we improve the employment rate this year from news or government report, but did you ever think about that what bring many employment opportunity?This is based on many new industries and new factories and then brings many employment opportunities. This is a simple principle, but always ignored by people. According to the Ã¢â¬Å"Report: Las Vegas needs to diversify export economyÃ¢â¬ written by Robison who is a famous author in Las Vegas Review Journal, The total export in Las Vegas is about 7 billion dollars and in the growing of export at position twelfth at time between 2003 and 2008 among 100 biggest cities in United Stated.Las Vegas is number 72nd among 100 biggest cities GDP, the contribution is almost 8percent in the total GDP of 100 biggest cites in United Stated. But the peo ple who live in Las Vegas, try know they should do something to save Las Vegas, they know Macao have more gambling scale than Las Vegas, Las Vegas is not yet gambling first place in the world. Therefore, people should think about to built a new industry to support the large city. Las Vegas needs to diversification economy urgently. I studied in Seattle for one year. In my eyes, the diversification economy in Seattle is very successful.For example, a lot of big companies in Seattle like Boeing and Microsoft. The big companies contribute for GDP have a great influence. According to Brad Smith who is general counsel in Microsoft said that employment contributed by Microsoft around 29 percent in Washington State in past twenty years. There are many industry in Seattle is very good. All I know that aerospace industry, information technology industry, bioscience industry, cleans technology, environmental industry and international trade in Seattle are the outstanding industries.In Las Veg as, we also can learn from Seattle, we should have some outstanding industries beside hospitality industry. If we have many great industries, we need more talents. Therefore, we will have good education in university. Seattle has a university named University of Washington; this university is a great university in the world. If we have diversification economy in Las Vegas the UNLV not just good at the hospitality major. Another example I want to compare with Las Vegas is Detroit. Long time ago Detroit named Ã¢â¬Å"AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s ParisÃ¢â¬ because in this city have many Gilded age building.Today, based on my sociology what I learned in Green River Community College, the pillar industry in Detroit include auto industry, iron and steel industry, airplane and tank industry, chemistry industry, metal industry, wood industry and shipping industry. But all the industries in Detroit are based on auto industry, this is a typical city which one is Las Vegas should to learn. We can set up many industries around our hospitality industry. In this way, we still the casino city and we have many industries to support the city.Sooner or later, we will defeat Macao and become the best hospitality city again with our strong economic power from our diversification economy. There is a company named City Center based on the hospitality industry to develop the high technology. They invented a kind of automatic door and plan to install this door for every guest room; moreover they use automatic technology on TV and many devices in guest rooms (CityCenter, Robison). Many company can leaned from City Center to develop the high technology for Las Vegas, for example we can use robots to cook food for customer and clean the guest rooms.If we have the hotel robots industry we can have more employment opportunities and we can sell the hotel robots for hotel. City Center also have a stone pit, they use the stone to build hotel. (CityCenter, Robinson) We can see many nature stone around Las Vegas we can use those stone make money. What industry is fit for Las Vegas? Firstly, the solar power generation is best one. We know Las Vegas has solar power generation already, but it is not enough. If the solar power can support the electric power of whole city, and also has surplus power to sell for other city, other states and even other country.Secondly, stone and mining industry. The countless nature stone around Las Vegas, this is the fortune of Las Vegas. We can mine the stone and use it build our hotel and also we can sell stone for other state and other country. Thirdly, the high technology is other good industry. We are in America, the high technology country in the world. We should take advantage of our high technology which we already have, and create new high technology to benefit people in Las Vegas. The last thing is the professional sport team.If we have professional sport team not only we can make money from sport game, but also we can make money from our spo rt team clothes, cap, cup and so on. In conclusion, the benefit of diversification economy in Las Vegas cannot be ignored. It is not just the economy benefit more over is sustainable development in Las Vegas. People need better life and stable life. If we have diversification economy, the education, medical treatment, and welfare system will have a great improvement. Therefore, we must have diversification economy in Las Vegas.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Man's destiny is at his own hands. Certainly true nowadays for most people, but there was a time when, and presently in some areas where, people do not decide their own destiny. Destiny of those people was decided upon by their masters or their rulers. In the early modern period (1500's Ã¢â¬â 1700's) most people do not have the luxury to choose their own path. Take for example the Africans and the people under some monarch. During this time, Africans were compelled to be slaves and imported to Europe and America. While in the case of people under monarchy, their laws are under the authority of their ruler. According to the True Law of Free Monarchies written by James I of England, the king is responsible for the whole land and his subjects. He is the master of every individual residing in his kingdom. He had the power over the life and death of his people. In a monarch, rules and laws made by the king were crafted at his followers' advise or proposal but it is still subjected to the king's discretion on what to implement when times arises. His authority solely made these laws official. Implementation or revoking of certain laws or policies is within his bounds alone. The people are put to oath to be loyal followers of their king and his predecessors. Generally, a king's subject has a sort of liberty as long as they follow the rules of the land and whatever the king wishes them to do. Most of the kings give very harsh punishment to those persons who do not follow his orders. The king is not bound to anything except his conscience and his goodwill to his subjects. As for the slaves, they do not have the conveniences savored by the followers of the king. They absolutely do not have the freedom to do their own will. Slaves were commonly captives or prisoners of war. The victors, rather than killing them, prefer to make use of them or profit from them. Later on, slavery was brought about by racial discrimination. Slavery trade soon flourished when civilization progressed. They use/bought these slaves for the manpower needed to produce the needs of their people, especially for doing arduous tasks. They were usually traded in exchange for money, foods, goods or ammunitions. The slaves were usually kept inside the cages or tied around a tree. According to Bosman, the slaves were first examined by a physician before they purchase them. All those handicapped were set aside, only the physically fit ones were bought. They were also branded for easy identification of their buyers. With regards to food during the voyage, the slaves were fed thrice a day, the food much better than the food that they were eating at their place according to Bosman. Their sleeping area is divided per gender. One part is designated for men, the other is for women. They usually lie very close to each other because they are usually crowded due to the large number of slaves shipped. Majority of the slaves were treated poorly and cruelly by their masters. Very seldom will you find masters that are good to their slaves. Some who are lame were beaten to death. Slaves were not allowed to marry their masters or mistresses but there are some secret relationships that transpired. The world of these people was very limited especially the slaves. They do everything that was asked by their master or ruler and they do not have the right to complain. Some even kill themselves when told to do so by their masters. Their lives were literally on their master's hands. Over time, slavery trade dwindled down because of some resistance and laws enacted upon by humane individuals, monarchy had also been lax with their subject. But if you look around, the idea of slavery or ruling over somebody has not been totally obliterated, some people still do not have the power to choose their own destiny. In the present years, slavery is not so obvious. Though it still exists but it operates discreetly. It is demonstrated by ruling class or rich people by using their money power to influence and dictate the lives of the poor. They have all the power to manipulate them, a discreet demonstration of slavery. Works Cited Page Bosman, Willem. A. A New and Accurate Description of the Coast of Guinea Divided into the Gold, the Slave, and the Ivory Coasts. http://www.cambridge.org/resources/0521808944/3355_WiesnerHanks%20ch13%20sources.pdf James I. True Law of Free Monarchies. http://www.thenagain.info/Classes/Sources/JamesI.html Lain, Zachary. All Men Are Created Equal: Or Are They? The Triangular Slave Trade. http://dhr.dos.state.fl.us/museum/programs/historyfair/Lain.pdf ;
Friday, January 3, 2020
Introduction There are many ethical concerns that arise when a company, or individual, stand to make a monetary gain by making a medical decision. In the clinical research, there have been concerns ranging from faking the number of patients enrolled in a study to fabricating study data and insider trading. These issues are what arise when money drives an industry that is supposed to be concerned with patient safety and scientific investigation. The conflicting interests of financial gain and the need for accurate and complete medical research are the overarching issues facing the clinical research industry. History of Clinical Research Clinical research trials can be traced as far back as biblical times, though in those days the researchers used legumes and lemons1. As medicine advanced, so did clinical research techniques. The first double blind controlled trial which occurred in 1943, was for a drug to treat the common cold. By 1946, the first randomized trial began for Streptomycin. It didnÃ¢â¬â¢t take long for leading researchers to discover the need for regulatory framework1. The ethical framework that formed our healthcare delivery system is rooted in the Hippocratic Oath, which states that the prime duty of a physician is to avoid harming the patient. However, this oath has not been shown the same respect in the clinical research world1. The FDA, founded in 1862, was designed to be a scientific regulation institution that quickly became a law enforcement organization inShow MoreRelatedChallenges Facing The Health Care Industry1626 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe purpose of this research is to explore the top cha llenges facing the health care industry. These challenges were examined to identify the impact that the patient, their families, and providers are faced with under the new ACA reform. This research briefly analyze the causes of health care cost increased, the shortage of healthcare workforce related to demographic changes of aging population and professional providers responsibilities to practice within the code of ethics. A solution is recommendedRead MoreThree of the Most Difficult Issues Facing Health Care in the U.S.1041 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof the most difficult issues facing health care in the U.S. today. Williams Torrens (2010) states the three most difficult issues facing health care in the United States are: decision making practices, administrative practices and financing practices in the health system (page 337). The first issue facing the United States health care is decision-making practices. In fact, the more that statutes, regulations, and court cases decide ethical issues, the narrower is theRead MoreThe Future Challenges Facing Health Care in the Us1231 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Future Challenges Facing Health Care in the United States Gregrey McDaniel Professor: Manuel Johnican, PhD Strayer University HSA 500 11 June 2011 Identify and describe at least three of the most difficult issues facing health care in the United States today. One of the most difficult issues facing the United States health care system is combating diseases. Even with mortality rates continuing to decrease and with life expectancy rates continuing to increase, these trendsRead MoreEthical Issues in Healthcare Research Essay771 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThere are many ethical issues in the healthcare field. These issues range from insurance coverage, senior care, childhood immunizations, beneficence, abortion, medicinal marijuana, honesty and medical research (Fritzsche, D., 2004). Today we will discuss the ethical concerns in only one aspect of heath care and that topic is research (Benatar, S., 2000). Medical research is necessary in order to make strides in health care, introduce new medications, to discover new symptoms and disorders and toRead MoreEthical Judgement Methods1195 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmajor ways of knowing which are emotion and reasoning. This essay will tackle the knowledge issue which is Ã¢â¬Å"Is our ethical judgements hindrance on our knowledge a good thing?Ã¢â¬ I will be focusing on two areas of knowing which Natural Sciences and the Arts. To some ethics can simplify life, by just following what their religion or what their culture say. For example Ã¢â¬Ëyou shall not killÃ¢â¬â¢; this is a worldwide ethical view. It is seen in many religions and culture this gives a sense of order. On the otherRead MoreMovie Review : Wit ( 2001 )1074 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthese type of terminal cancer, she felt fearful and as she battles with it, she discovered the difficulties facing her impending death. As nurses, we will encounter such situations wherein we come across those patients who have been terminally ill and as nurses we need to guarantee that we can promote life and protect our patientÃ¢â¬â¢s interest. There will come a time when we might face some ethical dilemmas regarding our care for our patients that makes it difficult for us to morally decide on which actionRead MoreThe Future Challenges Facing Health Care in the United States1299 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Future Challenges Facing Health Care in the United State s Liz M. Santiago Dr. Watson HSA 500 March 11, 2012 Identify and describe at least three of the most difficult issues facing health care in the United States today.Ã Our health care system is complex in the way it is setup and the way it operates. There are many key issues that face the health care system in the United States today. Three of the most difficult issues include diseases, health disparities and paying forRead MoreEthics: Nursing and Abortion1645 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDupin, Jenifer June 8, 2013 Ethics/ Research Proposal The Ethics for Nurses in Abortion Procedures Working in the field of abortion isnÃ¢â¬â¢t an easy task furthermore participating in the abortion procedures. But the field of nursing you have to follow a code of ethics, a set of rules and regulation. Nurses have their personal opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. NursesRead MoreThe Health Care System Of Nursing1231 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessome type of conflict throughout their career. However, how the manager handles the conflict is crucial to the entire team. When it comes to nursing management experiencing conflict many factors come into consideration. For instance, Ã¢â¬Å"managersÃ¢â¬â¢ ethical responsibilities are not only to patients but also to the nurses working in their institutionÃ¢â¬ (Toren Wagner, 2010, p. 393). Therefore, nursing management must consider how the situation affects not only the nurses but the patients as well. Nur seRead MoreThe Incredible Potential of Gene Therapy Essay1166 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesrecent years discussion about gene therapy has changed into a promising possibility to treat many of our common human diseases and disorders. Although gene therapy might be the answer to many problems, it has been met with a number of logistical and ethical hardships. With the prospect of being a treatment for inherited genetic disorders, cancers, and viral infections, gene therapy seems like the logical fix-it-all bandage that many people would benefit from. Gene therapy is a relatively new concept