Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Peruse directions cautiously - Essay Example event of selling and buying, dealings altogether overlooked any interview to the helpful part of exchange thinking about each slaveÃ¢â¬â¢s essential unavoidable rights as people, in any event. A relate by a specific Taylor Jackson for example, recounted his own 1938 experience in the Nigger Traders Yard for a quarter of a year, seeing dark slaves getting sold in an ordinary procedure of being picked as the offering picked. On a miniaturized scale level of assessing, in any case, as displayed in the novel through Paul D who gets equal unpleasantness when the teacher decides to have him sold at a fixed worth, there thusly emerges a puncturing acknowledgment of masculinity, freedom, and pride removed the basic self which separates factual scales that recorded captives of business on record like non-living articles. To a few, due maybe to assorted likelihood of seeing normal experience, it came rather less cruel regardless of the nearness of getting managers ready and about the spot. A meeting with an Arkansas hostage named Nellie James uncovered what was in any case only occasionally sort of ace, with James expressing that hers was sensibly kind to every one of his subjects and that her significant other shared a relative estimation at the time their opportunity from being held as a property was announced in youth. Sethe, then again, gets together the moment when she attracts further awareness on how the Sweet Home figures out how to program their circumstances with the end goal that the humble workers would be a long way from complaining of them. Such revelation that awards confirmation to the schoolteacherÃ¢â¬â¢s obtuse treatment makes her taste offensiveness particularly on coming to completely perceive that she isn't in charge of her life and youngsters in the manor. A couple of different stories demonstrated having embraced equal thought of arriving at this much reasonableness where most had gone distraught at thinking about an approach to get away. There were likewise the individuals who asserted knowing slave ladies, running from unimportant associate to close family members, who
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Nutri, Health and Wellness - Lab Report Example To accomplish wellbeing conveyance during this lifecycle, an eager mother is given a timetable to follow during the pregnancy time frame. The principle point being to check the development of the kid, and in the event that it isn't sheltered, revision is done and furthermore the mother is prompted on keeping up her pregnancy period. Inability to get pre-birth care, there are higher odds of the child having low weight and may build the opportunity of the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s demise. Further, the specialist may spot medical issues early enough when a mother gets to wellbeing offices normally. What's more, the specialist will treat them at a beginning time before they spread and influence the child. Pre-birth care isn't just on the tests, yet the specialist likewise offers the mother some guidance on the most proficient method to give her unborn child a sound beginning to life, for instance by presenting her to activities and great nourishment that will keep the infant on great wellbeing as he/she was before birth. During this pre-birth stage, sustenance is critical to the strength of the mother and for the kid. These supplements empower the development of the youngster and furthermore empowers anticipation of sicknesses from assaulting the embryo during pregnancy. Then again, poor nourishment results to certain difficulties to the pregnant mother and furthermore to the kid (Marie C and McCormick, 1999). The nourishment challenge related with the pregnancy incorporate; morning infection. It is a typical nourishment related issue during pregnancy. It for the most part goes on for a half year during the primary trimester. It as often as possible assists with eating close to nothing, or have standard suppers for the duration of the day. Morning affliction is brought about by solid enhanced and exceptionally prepared nourishments, thus pregnant moms are encouraged to maintain a strategic distance from solid spiced and prepared throws out. Indigestion is another regular test during pregnancy because of the hormones discharged by the placentaÃ¢â¬â¢s unwinding in the lower throat sphincter, which keeps food in the stomach related framework
Monday, August 17, 2020
What is New Student Registration I hope you all are getting excited to finish out your semesters strong and to join our Illinois community! One of the most important steps in this process that you will find on your Admitted Student Checklist is to sign up for and attend New Student Registration. This is a mandatory program for all incoming freshmen transfer students, so you may be thinking New Student Registration is a program during which you will meet with your academic advisor, register for your fall courses, meet new classmates, tour campus, and more! Participating in the program is required of all new students. If you live within 500 miles of campus, this is a mandatory on-campus program. If you live more than 500 miles from campus, you are able to participate in registration online, but you also have the option of coming to campus to join in on the fun! If you are a freshman student, most programs take place in the month of June, so keep that in mind when planning your summers. If you are a transfer student, there is one full-week of programs for transfer students May 20-24 and other programs throughout June. On-Campus Registration: Attending New Student Registration is an exciting step on your journey to becoming an official Illini. While registering for your fall courses is most important, there are so many other exciting opportunities during the program, as well. After you check in, you will be able to visit with many different campus departments and resources during the Campus Resources Fair. This is a great time to grab some free breakfast, ask questions you may have about campus, and get some free stuff! After the Resources Fair, you will attend a welcome presentation that includes information from the Office of Undergraduate Admissions, the Office of Student Financial Aid, and University Student Financial Services Cashier Operations (the billing office!) This presentation will include lots of helpful information for you and your guests. After the welcome, you and your guests will go to a college meeting during which you will meet with the academic college to which you have been admitted and learn more about college resources, expectations, etc. From there, you will meet with your academic advisor or department to discuss course offerings and your fall schedule. While you are meeting with your advisor, your guests will have separate programming to attend. You and your guests can meet back up at lunch at the Ikenberry Commons â" our studentsâ favorite dining hall â" to grab some great food and ice cream before you head back to meet with your college to actually register for your fall courses â" exciting! While you are registering for courses, your guests will have the opportunity to learn more about resources such as Parent Family Programs, University Housing, and Campus Safety. Once you have registered for your courses, you are officially an Illini student! After you have your schedule, our student staff will be able to show you around campus during campus tours or classroom tours. This is a great way to see where all of your classes are located, see where your residence hall is located, and really start to see what your life on campus will look like! Additionally, you can visit with athletics to purchase your season tickets, head to the Illini Union Bookstore to purchase some Illini gear, and get your student ID card (or i-Card)! Registration provides a full day for you to spend on campus taking care of important business while also spending some time exploring this wonderful community. Online Registration: If you will be participating in online registration, the way the program is conducted will vary by college. After signing up for an online program, you will receive more information from your academic college with information about how you will be meeting virtually with your advisor. During online registration, you will be able to meet with your academic advisor and discuss your academic and career goals, interests, and course options. You will register for fall courses, as well. Online registration is a great way to connect with your advisor and ask questions you may have about your academic program and campus. Be assured that you will have so many opportunities to learn more about campus resources and meet fellow classmates during Welcome Days once you are on campus in the fall! You can start imagining yourself in your class picture now! Next Steps: Now you know what New Student Registration is, I hope you are excited to sign up! Once you have accepted your offer of admission, you are able to sign up for a registration program through your Admitted Student Checklist on your myIllini account. Before you attend registration, make sure to take care of these important items: Complete your college homework and take your placement exams two weeks before you participate in registration. Both of these become available through your Admitted Student Checklist on May 1. College homework and your placement exam results really help your advisor get to know you and your interests/goals and determine what courses would be best for you!Send AP scores and/or IB scores directly from the testing agency to campus. AP scores need to be sent to the Office of Undergraduate Admissions, while IB scores need to be sent to the Office of Measurement and Evaluation. You and your advisor will discuss your known or predicted AP/IB scores while finalizing your fall schedule. If you have any more questions about New Student Registration, check out our FAQ page or contact or office by calling (217) 333-0302 or emailing firstname.lastname@example.org. We cannot wait to meet you this summer and welcome you to Illinois! Katie Admissions Counselor I coordinate our New Student Registration programming and telecounseling efforts. I grew up in Homer Glen, a southwest suburb of Chicago. I earned my bachelor's degree in Psychology from Bradley University and my masterâs degree in Higher Education and Educational Administration from Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Brandon Yu TTL Intensive Vocab 12/20/15 VCP Project Summary: Odessey After fighting in the Trojan war, the Greek hero Odysseus still hasn t come home to Ithaka. Most people figure he s dead. But we don t: Homer lets us know right away that Odysseus is being held as a (willing) sex captive on the island of the goddess Kalypso. The Sea god Poseidon is ticked off at Odysseus, and sees no reason to let him get home. Back in Ithaka, Odysseus s wife Penelope is getting swarmed by a horde of unwanted suitors. Odysseus and Penelope s son, Telemachos, now a typically moody teenager, gets a visit from the goddess Athene (who was always chummy with Odysseus). She tells him to go looking for news of his missing father, so he heads to Pylos to visit King Nestor. Nestor takes him in, gives him a dinnerÃ¢â¬âand then tells him to go see King Menelaos in Sparta. Once again, he does as he s told. In Sparta, Telemachos learns from Menelaos that Odysseus is alive andÃ¢â¬ ¦well, being held captive on Kalypso s island. Menelaos also tells Telemachos about how his bro, King Agamemnon, was murdered when he got home from Troy by his unfaithful wife, Klytaimestra, and her lover, Aigisthos. It s cool, though: Agamemnon s son Orestes killed the murderers. This fun story raises the question of whether Odysseus will be killed when he gets home, and, if so, whether Telemachos will step up to avenge his father s death. Meanwhile, back in Ithaka, Penelope s suitors plot to ambush and kill TelemachosShow MoreRelatedThe Trojan War By Barry Strauss1262 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Trojan War has long been debated on historical accuracy by experts on whether or not it actually happened. In Barry Strauss book, The Trojan War, he draws from multiple sources to illustrate what occurred during this time period. Strauss utilizes archeological evidence and descriptions from poets, such as Homer, surro unding the Trojan War to argue what probably happened and what was likely made up. Barry Strauss organizes his summary of the Trojan War by referencing Homer s the Iliad and theRead MoreThe Trojan War : A New History With His Narrative1670 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction: Barry Strauss highlights one of the greatest wars fought in all time in his book The Trojan War: A New History with his narrative skill and swiftness in interpreting a good antiquated tale of indignity and deception. The book re-studies HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s well-known work, the Iliad, along with the cycle of epic poems, examining evidence of the Bronze Age from the Mediterranean to the Near East. HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s description of the Trojan War truly did take place due to the archeological evidence found inRead MoreQuestions On The Trojan War 1203 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTitle: Ephemera Troubles With Trojans Your insider news to all things Trojan War! Summary: When Patroclus is exiled for accidentally killing another boy, he is sent to King PeleusÃ¢â¬â¢ land, Phthia. There, Patroclus quickly falls under the companionship of Achilles and are soon requested to join the Trojan War. Achilles is Aristos Achaion, he is the best fighter the Greeks have ever known, but if he goes to war, he will inevitably die. However, if he avoids war, all the glory and fame awaiting himRead MoreThe Myth Of Atalant A Reflection Of The Greek Values And Culture By Reading These Myths1386 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmore than women, because of the stereotype that men can work harder and complete tasks better than women. Since her father would abandon his own child, just because of her gender, it shows that having a boy meant a lot in Ancient Greek society. In summary, the Ancient Greeks viewed women as lesser than men. 27. Atalanta is a good role model for all young women, because she defied the stereotypes that are associated with her gender. Atlanta was abandoned to die because of stereotypes, but when she grewRead MoreFilm Review of Helen of Troy1658 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHelen was courted by so many prominent heroes, her stepfather Tyndareus made all of them swear to abide by Helens choice of a husband, and to defend that husbands rights should anyone attempt to take Helen away by force. Matthew Marsden as Paris- Trojan who took Helen from Menelaus. Rufus Sewell as Agamemnon- The leader of the Achaean expedition to Troy, he was the King of Mycenae.Ã On his return from Troy he was murdered by his wife Clytemnestra, and her lover Aegisthus. The lover was the son ofRead MoreHelen of Troy Literary Analysis1250 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGuido Notari Ajax- Maxwell Reed II. SUMMARY Because of her extraordinary beauty; they say a thousand ships were launched, fifty thousand men died, and the world s greatest city fell to dust. They say great Zeus himself was her father, that the gods never sculpted a more perfect face than hers. But behind that face was a girl named Helen, who loved horses, played the flute, and bit her nails. (Clemence McLaren, 1) Throughout time, men have waged war. Some for power, some for glory, some forRead MoreWhy Greek Mythology Is Still Relevant Today And Why We Still Use It1588 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesReview- Summary #1 In Ã¢â¬Å"The Greek GodsÃ¢â¬ from The Romans Anne Millard and Susan Peach describes that the Greeks had monthly festivals for the Greek gods. Their goal was to persuade the gods to grant their wishes. Some families were so religious to the gods that they prayed in the altar every day. Others, when they were about to go somewhere important, they would pray to that type of god. The Greeks admired the gods and always made them important to their everyday lives. Summary #2 In Ã¢â¬Å"GreekRead MoreSimilarities Between Hector And Achilles1650 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestheir differences are that they fought for different things, came from different backgrounds, and their life goals are completely opposite. In Ã¢â¬Å"The IliadÃ¢â¬ , Hector and Achilles are two of the best warriors in their city. Hector is in charge of the Trojans, while Achilles is in charge of the Greeks. Both are great fighters and command their armies in the battle of Troy. Each warrior has pride, endless self confidence, and glory. Both, Hector and Achilles, have a desire to be well respected and to becomeRead MoreThe Importance Of Greek Mythology1605 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLiterature Review- Summary #1 In Ã¢â¬Å"The Greek GodsÃ¢â¬ from The Romans Anne Millard and Susan Peach describes that the Greeks had monthly festivals for the Greek gods. Their goal was to persuade the gods to grant their wishes. Some families were so religious to the gods that they prayed to the altar everyday. Others, when they were about to go somewhere important, they would pray to that type of god. The Greeks admired the gods and always made them important to their everyday lives. Summary #2 In Ã¢â¬Å"GreekRead MoreWhy Greek Mythology Is Still Relevant Today And Why We Still Use It1585 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesReview- Summary #1 In Ã¢â¬Å"The Greek GodsÃ¢â¬ from The Romans Anne Millard and Susan Peach describes that the Greeks had monthly festivals for the Greek gods. Their goal was to persuade the gods to grant their wishes. Some families were so religious to the gods that they prayed in the altar everyday. Others, when they were about to go somewhere important, they would pray to that type of god. The Greeks admired the gods and always made them important to their everyday lives. Summary #2 In Ã¢â¬Å"Greek
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
What is Cleanliness? Since the germ theory of disease, cleanliness has come to mean an effort to remove germs and other hazardous materials. A reaction to an excessive desire for a germ-free environment began to occur around 1989, when David Strachan put forth the Ã¢â¬Å"hygiene hypothesisÃ¢â¬ in the British Medical Journal. In essence, this hypothesis holds that dirt plays a useful role in developing the immune system; the fewer germs people are exposed to in childhood, the more likely they are to get sick as adults. We will write a custom essay sample on Cleanliness or any similar topic only for you Order Now The valuation of cleanliness, therefore, has a social and cultural dimension beyond the requirements of hygiene for practical purposes. Influence of cleanliness on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life The significance of cleanliness and hygiene cannot be overlooked by any society. Every faith and civilization stresses the importance of cleanliness. Historically, cleanliness has been considered one of the important factors by which to judge a civilizationÃ¢â¬â¢s or societyÃ¢â¬â¢s development. Islam places great emphasis on cleanliness and purity, both physically and spiritually. In Islam, spiritual purity is linked to physical cleanliness and purity. More importantly, cleanliness is termed an indispensable fundamental of faith. However, this fundamental and powerful tenet of our faith, unfortunately, is not reflected in our society practically. Serious reflection is required on our individual as well as collective practices in order to make this valuable principle of Islam part of our lives. There are many verses in the Holy Quran which reflect the importance of cleanliness. For example, Allah says Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦Truly, Allah loves those who turn to Him constantly and He loves those who keep themselves pure and cleanÃ¢â¬ (2:222). In the Quran worship and seeking AllahÃ¢â¬â¢s love is conditioned with cleanliness and purity as the Holy Book says Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦In it [mosque] are men who love to clean and to purify themselves. And Allah loves those who make themselves clean and pureÃ¢â¬ (9:108). Furthermore, in one of his sayings the Holy Prophet (PBUH) has termed cleanliness as half of faith. The above few examples from the Holy Quran and sayings of the Holy Prophet reveal that without cleanliness of our body and environment, one cannot receive the proximity of Allah spiritually and most importantly, faith cannot be completed in the absence of cleanliness and purity. Much is said rhetorically about cleanliness in our society but practically its application is missing. A quick observation can reveal how insensitive a culture we have developed regarding cleanliness and hygiene. Throwing garbage in the streets, roads or parks has become a common practice in our society. In public places dustbins are seldom found. Even if dustbins are installed, people do not use them properly. Rather, they prefer to throw garbage outside them. It is also observed that people clean their homes and shops and throw the garbage on the street without considering its implications. It is evident that even students of elite schools throw garbage on the ground even in the presence of garbage bins. This shows our attitude towards cleanliness and hygiene. Another habit that is commonly found in our society is spitting openly. People spit paan from running vehicles without considering the pedestrians walking on the road. This practice not only affects the environment but is also an eyesore. Another area that needs consideration is the horrible condition of public toilets. The shortage of public toilets is a big challenge, hence people are compelled to use open spaces to answer the call of nature. The toilets that do exist are in such pathetic condition that one cannot use them. There are many other examples which can be cited to indicate the pathetic condition of cleanliness and hygiene in our society. Hence, conscious efforts are needed to tackle this issue. There is a dire need to educate and sensitise people about the importance of cleanliness in light of our faith. In this regard social institutions such as educational institutions, the media and religious institutions can play a vital role. It is essential to provide civic education in order to train the younger generations of a society. In Pakistan, the education system needs to transform its practices. Teaching and learning material regarding cleanliness and hygiene should be included in the curriculum and textbooks. Educational institutions should demonstrate cleanliness in their premises. To train young people schools should involve students in cleaning their schools, homes and environment and highlight proper sanitary practices. The use of dustbins should be strictly followed in the school premises. Secondly, the media can be a powerful source to educate and sensitise the masses about the importance of cleanliness and disadvantages of an unhygienic way of life. It should focus on both the good as well as unhygienic practices in our society. Thirdly, religious institutions such as mosques and madressahs can also play their part in educating the people about the importance of cleanliness in the light of Islamic teachings. Furthermore, the role and commitment of the government cannot be overlooked in maintaining cleanliness and hygiene in society. The governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s will is very crucial in making policies and implementing them at the grass-roots level. The government can play an important role in cleaning areas, installing dustbins, collecting garbage and enforcing laws against littering etc. The importance of cleanliness cannot be ignored in individual as well as communal life. On one hand it is an important factor for human health and spiritual development; on the other hand it is essential for environmental development. By adopting a clean and hygienic lifestyle, a valuable amount can also be saved where health issues are concerned. A clean and healthy life helps in refining the culture of a society and reflects in every aspect of life such as art, architecture, food, music and so on. Ultimately, it leads towards a higher level of civilization. Islam has put unique emphasis on the importance of cleanliness by making it a part of faith. Hence, there is a dire need to make conscious efforts in educating the people about the importance of cleanliness. In this regard, serious steps are required at multiple levels to make this precious value of our faith part of our individual and collective lives. How to cite Cleanliness, Papers Cleanliness Free Essays Digital Multimeter Calibration Purpose The purpose of this procedure is to provide instruction for the calibration of digital multimeters (DMM). Scope All multimeters (multi-range instruments used to measure voltage, current, and resistance) are to be verified in calibration no less than once per year. Procedure Preliminary Instructions and Notes 1. We will write a custom essay sample on Cleanliness or any similar topic only for you Order Now Read this entire procedure before beginning the calibration. 2. Calibration shall be performed in an environment that conforms to Manufacturer Specifications. 3. The digital multimeter will hereafter be referred to as the Instrument Under Test (IUT). . Verify that the IUT is clean. 5. Visually examine the IUT for any condition that could cause errors in the calibration. 6. If any of the requirements cannot be met, refer to the applicable manufacturer manual. 7. If a malfunction occurs or a defect is observed while calibration is in progress, the calibration shall be discontinued and necessary corrective action taken; if corrective action affects a measurement function previously calibrated, the function shall be recalibrated before the remainder of the procedure implemented. Reference Material Applicable Manufacturers Manual or Brochures. Specifications The specifications of the IUT are determined by the applicable manufacturerÃ¢â¬â¢s documentation. If the manufacturerÃ¢â¬â¢s documentation is not available, then the specifications identified in this procedure are used. Equipment Required The Standards listed below should be selected on the basis of their higher accuracy level when compared to the unit under test. Equivalent Standards must be equal to or better than the Minimum-Use-Specification. Minimum-Use-Specifications for Standards listed are 1/4 the accuracy required by the IUT. * Rotek Model 2500 Calibrator or equivalent * Diode Test Fixture Test Leads * Continuity Test Fixture * Capacitance Test Fixture * Thermometer * Hydrometer Set-Up Turn all power on (calibrator and the unit to be calibrated). Allow the instruments to stabilize for approximately 5 minutes. Conduct the tests in an ambient temperature of 25 Ã ± 5C and a relative humidity of less than 80%. Note: If the IUT has an automatic ranging feature , then the function being checked (i. e. voltage, current, or resistance) must be verified in the variable range mode as well. Battery Replacement Replace the battery in the IUT and make sure the battery contacts are not dirty. Detailed Procedure Display and Switch Test Turn the IUT on and verify that all LCD segments are working and not dim. Verify that the selector switch(s) is/are working properly. Make sure the Low Battery indicator is not showing. Resistance Check Connect the calibrator between the V/ohm and common input terminals of the IUT. Use the following chart to verify the resistance values. Step | Range | Input | Display | 1 | 200 ohm | Short | 00. 0 to 00. 5 | 2 | 2 k ohm | Short | 0. 000 to 0. 001 | 3 | 2 k ohm | 1 k ohm | . 998 to 1. 002 | 4 | 20 k ohm | 10 k ohm | 9,98 to 10. 02 | | 200 k ohm | 100 k ohm | 99. 8 to 100. 2 | 6 | 2000 k ohm | 1 M ohm | 998 to 1002 | 7 | 2000 M ohm | Open | 0. 10 to 00. 0 | Continuity Test 1. Select the continuity check function on the calibrator. 2. Connect the test leads to the V/ohm and common terminals of the IUT. 3. Momentarily short the test leads together and observe that the tone sounds. 4. Connect the test leads to the continuity test fixture between the 100 ohm test points. No tone should be heard indicating non-terminating connection. 5. Connect the test leads to the continuity test fixture between the 50 ohm set up. The test tone should indicate continuity between the test points. DC Voltage Test 1. Use the calibrator to supply the correct DC voltage listed below. 2. Set the calibrator for a zero volt input. 3. Connect the calibrator output to the V/ohm and common input terminals of the IUT. Note: Connect the ground/common/low side of the Rotek 2500 to the common on the IUT. 4. With reference to the table below, select the IUT voltage range and set the calibrator output to the corresponding IUT input voltage. Test per the following chart and verify that the display falls within the limits given. Step | Range | Input | Display | 1 | 200mV | 190mV | 189. 7 to 190. 3 | 2 | 200mV | -190mV | -189. 7 to -190. 3 | 3 | 2V | 0. 0V | -0. 001 to 0. 001 | 4 | 2V | 1. 9V | 1. 897 to 1. 903 | 5 | 20V | 19V | 18. 97 to 19. 03 | 6 | 200V | 100V | 99. 84 to 100. 16 | 7 | 1000V | 400V | 399. 3 to 400. 6 | AC Voltage Test Use the calibrator to supply the correct AC voltage in the following test: 1. Set the calibrator to 60 Hz. 2. Connect the calibrator output to the V/ohm and common input terminals of the IUT. Connect the ground/common/low side of the calibrator to common on the IUT. . With reference to the table below, select the IUT voltage range given in step 1 and set the calibrator output to the corresponding IUT input voltage. Verify that the display reading is within the limits shown. Step | Range | Input | Display | 1 | 200mV | 100mV | 99. 0 to 101. 0 | 2 | 2V | 1V | 0. 990 to 1. 010 | 3 | 20V | 10V | 9. 90 | 4 | 200V | 100V | 99. 0 to 100. 1 | 5 | 750V | 400V | 294 to 406 | DC Current Test Use the calibrator to supply the correct DC current listed in the table below: 1. Set the output of the calibrator to zero mA. 2. Connect the output of the calibrator to the lowest current terminal (typically 200 mA) and common input terminal on the IUT. Note: Do not exceed the maximum current rating of the meter. Only test for values the meter is capable of reading. 3. With reference to the table below, select the IUT current range and set the calibration output to provide the corresponding IUT input current. Verify that the display reading is within the limits shown. Step | Range | Input | Display | 1 | 200? A | 190? A | 189. 7 to 192. 3 | 2 | 2mA | 1. 9mA | 1. 897 to 1. 923 | 3 | 20mA | 19mA | 18. 97 to 19. 23 | 4 | 200mA | 190mA | 189. 7 to 192. 3 | . Disconnect the calibrator and change the current terminal on the IUT to the highest setting (typically 10 A) leaving the common input terminal connected. 5. Use the following table to verify that the meter is functioning within the specified parameters. Step | Range | Input | Display | 1 | 10A | 1A | 0. 98 to 1. 02 | 2 | 10A | 5A | 4. 90 to 5. 10 | 3 | 10A | 9 A | 8. 82 to 9. 18 | AC Current Test Use the calibrator to supply the correct AC current listed in the table below: 1. Use the following table to verify that the meter is functioning within the specified parameters. 2. Set the output of the calibrator to zero mA. . Connect the output of the calibrator to the low current input terminal (typically 200 mA) and the common terminal of the unit under test. Note: Do not exceed the maximum current rating of the meter. Only test for values the meter is capable of reading. 4. With reference to the table below, select the IUT current range and set the calibrator output to provide the corresponding IUT input current. Verify that the display reading is within the limits shown. Step | Range | Input | Display | 1 | 200? A | 190? A | 18. 27 to 19. 28 | 2 | 2mA | 1. 9mA | 1. 872 to 1. 928 | 3 | 20mA | 19mA | 18. 72 to 19. 28 | | 200mA | 190mA | 187. 2 to 192. 8 | 5. Disconnect the calibrator and change the current terminal on the IUT to the highest setting (typically 10 A) leaving the common input terminal connected. 6. Use the following table to verify that the meter is functioning within the specified parameters. Step | Range | Input | Display | 1 | 10A | 1A | 0. 97 to 1. 03 | 2 | 10A | 5A | 4. 87 to 5. 13 | 3 | 10A | 9A | 8. 77 to 9. 23 | Logic Test Use this procedure to test weather the logic function is indicating the correct state. 1. Set the IUT to the logic test mode and insert the test leads into the V/ohm and common terminals. 2. Short the leads together and verify that the meter indicates a low logic state. 3. Set the calibrator to 0. 400 VDC and connect the meter to the output terminals. Verify that the meter indicates a low logic state. 4. Set the calibrator to 3. 500 VDC and verify that the IUT indicates a high logic state. Frequency Test 1. Connect an oscilloscope to a function generator to measure AC sine waves. 2. Set the function generator to output 10 VAC and use the oscilloscope to set the frequencies from the following table. 3. Connect the IUT leads to the V/ohm and common terminals on the IUT and to the ground and output of the function generator. . Verify the meter is displaying proper results from the table. Step | Range | Input | Display | 1 | Hz | 60 Hz @ 10V | 59. 4 to 60. 6 | 2 | Hz | 1 kHz @ 10V | . 990 to 1. 010k | 3 | Hz | 1 MHz @ 10V | . 990 to 1. 010M | Capacitance Test 1. Set the IUT to measure capacitance, insert the test leads into the V/ohm and common test terminals. 2. Connect the meter to the capacitance test fixture and use the following table to determine the ability of the IUT. Step | Range | Input | Display | 1 | Capacitance | 10 micro F | 9. 85 to 10. 15 | 2 | Capacitance | 1 micro F | . 985 to 1. 015 | 3 | Capacitance | 100 micro F | 98. to 101. 5 | Diode Test 1. Set the IUT to the diode check function and connect the test leads to the V/ohm and common terminals. 2. Connect the test leads to the diode test fixture and follow the steps in the proceeding table to verify diode test operation. Step | Range | Setup | Polarity | Display | Tone | 1 | Diode Check | Short | N/A | . 000 to . 001 | Yes | 2 | Diode Check | Si | Forward | . 800 to . 600 | Yes | 3 | Diode Check | Si | Reverse | 1. | No | 4 | Diode Check | Ge | Forward | . 300 to . 500 | Yes | 5 | Diode Check | Ge | Reverse | 1. | No | 3. Note: Some meters are not designed to emit a tone. Multimeters Prerequisites: This lesson is designed so that no prior knowledge is required. Description: This lesson demonstrates and explains how to use both a digital and an analog multimeter. During this lesson, voltage, resistance, current, capacitance, and frequency are measured. This lesson also describes some of the more common features of a digital multimeter. Objectives: * Identify and describe the display area, the function switch, and the leads/jacks on a digital multimeter * Adjust the mechanical zero and interpret a reading on the voltage scale, and the resistance scale of an nalog multimeter * Given an expected measurement, set the function and range switches of an analog multimeter and adjust the zero on the ohms scale * Know how to use a multimeter for a variety of purposes including checking for continuity across a circuit, measuring resistance, current, frequency, ac and dc voltage, and capacitance * And use the hold button, relative button, range button, and min/max button on a dmm Ammeters, Meggers, and Wheatstone Bridge Prerequisites: This lesson is designed for participants familiar with AC and DC theory, electrical safety, and electrical print reading. A basic understanding of electronic devices and circuits is recommended. Description: This lesson describes Wheatstone bridges, megohmmeters, and clamp-on ammeters. This lesson provides examples of the use of these instruments, identifies their components, and defines their functions. This lesson also describes safety and selection considerations for their use, describes how to set up the instruments, how to connect them to the systems under test, and how to take and read measurements. This lesson describes how to take a resistance reading of a Three-phase AC motor with a megohmmeter, how to set mechanical and electrical zero on a Wheatstone bridge, and how to interpret a Wheatstone bridge reading. This lesson also defines the Ã¢â¬Å"recordÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"lockÃ¢â¬ features of a clamp-on ammeter and describes how to modify the range of the meter for the best results. Objectives: Explain the use of a megger, identify its basic components and define its function * Describe the safety and selection considerations for using it, and describe the procedures for setting it up * Know how to attach the leads to the system and take a reading of a three-phase ac motor * Define a bridge circuit and identify the components and function of a Wheatstone bridge * Describe ho w to take a reading with a Wheatstone bridge and interpret it * Identify the components, range, function, and safety and selection consideration for a clamp-on ammeter * Describe the procedures for setting up a clamp-on ammeter, know how to take a reading and modify the range 1. Top+You 2. Search 3. Images 4. Maps 5. Play 6. YouTube . News 8. Gmail 9. Documents 10. Calendar 11. More 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. | Top of Form Bottom of Form 1. 2. Sign in Books No eBook available ISA| A1Books. co. in| Rediff Books| Flipkart| Infibeam| | Find in a library| All sellersÃ Ã »| | 4 ReviewsWrite review| Calibration: A TechnicianÃ¢â¬â¢s GuideÃ By Mike CableTop of Form | Ã Ã | | Bottom of FormAbout this bookMy libraryMy HistoryBooks on Google Play Pages displayed by permission of ISA. Copyright. | | | Samsung Series 9 Notebook Top of Form Bottom of Form Samsung recommends Windows 8. Print This Operating System| Operating System| Genuine WindowsÃ ® 7 Home Premium (64-bit)| Display| Scre en Size | 13. Ã¢â¬ SuperBright Plus widescreen display| Resolution| LED HD| Brightness| 400 nits, up to 16 million colors, HD LED Backlit anti-glare display| Memory| Standard System Memory| 4GB DDR3| Max. System Memory| 8GB| Storage| Hard Drive Capacity | 128GB SSD| Graphics| Graphics Chip | IntelÃ ® HD Graphics 3000| Multimedia| Speakers | 3 W Stereo Speaker (1. 5 W x 2)| Web Camera | 1. 3 MP HD| Connectivity| Wireless LAN | 802. 11 b/g/n WiFi| Bluetooth | Bluetooth V3. 0 High Speed| I/O Ports| HDMI | Yes| USB Ports | 2| Headphone Out| Yes| Microphone In| Yes| Multi Card Slot| 1 MicroSD| RJ45 (LAN) | Yes| Input Devices| Keyboard | 81 Key| Touch Pad | Yes| Power| AC Adapter| 40 W| Design| Color | Black| Dimensions| Dimensions (W x D x H) | 12. 9Ã¢â¬ ³ x 8. 9Ã¢â¬ ³ x 0. 62Ã¢â¬ ³ ~ 0. 64Ã¢â¬ ³| Weight| Weight| 2. 88 lbs. | Warranty| Warranty| 3 Year| HP Pavilion g6-1A69US test unit has the following configuration: * 15. 6-inch glossy 720p display (1366Ãâ"768 resolution) * Windows 7 Home Premium 64-bit * Intel Core i3-380M dual-core processor (2. 53GHz, 3MB cache, 35W TDP) * Intel HM55 chipset * Integrated Intel HD graphics * 4GB DDR3-1066 RAM (2x 2GB; supports up to 8GB Ã¢â¬â 2x 4GB) * 500GB 7200RPM Seagate hard drive (ST9500325AS) * 802. 11n wireless network adapter (Atheros AR9285) * No internal Bluetooth * Integrated webcam Built-in tray-load DVD burner (hp DVDRAM GT31L) * One-year limited warranty * 6-cell Li-ion battery (10. 8V, 4200mAh) * Weight: 5. 5 lbs. * Dimensions: 14. 72 x 9. 65 x 1. 20~1. 42 inches. Laptop buying guide * CNET UK * Reviews * Computers * Laptops Laptop buying guide Computers If you believe the headlines, the first rule about buying a laptop today is to forget about buying a laptop today. These bloated, annoying, space-hogging gadgets are apparently painfully obsolete compared to modern, sleek and sexy tablet computers. But just hold on a minute! Laptops still outsell tablets four to one, and sales in 2012 are expected to top a quarter of a billion worldwide for the first time ever. Laptops are faster and more powerful than tablets, have convenient full-size keyboards, are easy to connect to printers and cameras, and can glide between work and games in a flash. (Plus they can all actually run Flash. ) If you want an affordable, practical digital all-rounder, laptops come in an array of shapes, colours and prices that make flat, grey tablets look boringly identikit. There are laptops for students, laptops for artists, even laptops for mountain climbers. The only drawback to this variety is that it can be all too easy to end up with a computer thatÃ¢â¬â¢s either underpowered or overpriced for your needs. First things first YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll need two things when shopping for a laptop: a clear idea of what you want to do with it; and a firm budget. The good news is that all new laptops ill be fine for checking email, surfing the Web wirelessly, working on office documents, and enjoying your photo and music collections. Where things start to get trickier is if youÃ¢â¬ â¢re heavily into gaming, want to watch (or edit) HD video or need a computer that works well away from power sockets or in extreme conditions. Fix a budget before you start browsing Ã¢â¬â although leave a little wriggle room for extras like a laptop sleeve, software, a separate mouse and possibly an external hard drive. The basics Laptops come in three categories. At the small and portable end are ultra-lights, designed for stressed-out executives formatting Excel spreadsheets on the Heathrow Express. Not to be confused with budget netbooks (we have a whole buying guide just for them), ultra-lights tend to be nicely designed, a little sluggish and shockingly expensive. Their screen sizes range from around 11. 5 inches to 13 inches. The next step up is everyday laptop computers, sometimes called notebooks, with screens from 13 inches to 15 inches. This is the sweet shop for laptops, where the most are sold and prices are keenest. Notebooks are light enough to carry occasionally and can usually manage half a dayÃ¢â¬â¢s work away from power, but budget ones often lack style, speed and build quality. The final category is multimedia (or desktop replacement) laptops. These monsters have screens up to 17 inches (and sometimes even larger), and come packed with smart graphics cards, super-fast processors and lots of memory. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re the first choice of gamers, graphic designers and anyone who wants the power of an old-school desktop squeezed into a portable body. Well, we say portable, but these laptops can be heavier than a case of duty-free and bulky enough to need a Business Class seat to themselves. Windows or Mac Switch on the telly and it seems that everyone using a computer has an Apple Mac, except perhaps those hardcore hackers you see surrounded by monitors, empty pizza boxes and Star Wars figurines. In real life, however, the choice is not quite so clear-cut. Macs are built well and age slowly but cost at least two to three times as much as the cheapest Windows machines. Even at those prices, the most affordable MacBooks have cramped screens and some performance limitations. Windows computers offer more choice and lower prices, but youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to stay on top of upgrades and security to get the best from them. When shopping for a PC laptop, insist on Windows 7 software. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really matter which version, although anything running the Starter Edition is actually a netbook rather than a laptop Ã¢â¬â hop over to our netbook buying guide for more info. A bigger decision is what brand to buy. Unlike desktops, where even no-name companies can make great computers, the technical challenge of squeezing hundreds of components into a tiny case favours multinationals. Stick with top electronics brands (such as Sony, Samsung, Panasonic and Toshiba) or laptop specialists (Acer, Asus, HP/Compaq, Dell). Some retail chains also have Ã¢â¬Ëin-houseÃ¢â¬â¢ brands that can be good value, if a bit plasticky. Tech specs Laptop specifications change all the time and consist of a brain-melting alphabet soup of letters and numbers. In general, there are three things to consider: the processor; memory (RAM); and storage. You can ask about other key components, like the graphics card and graphics memory, but donÃ¢â¬â¢t expect to understand the answer Ã¢â¬â check the model online if this is important to you. Processors are virtually all dual-core these days, and are usually made by either Intel or AMD. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s little to choose between the two, although AMD silicon tends to be found in cheaper machines. Intel chips get more powerful as their model number increases (ie. an Intel Core i5 chip is faster than an Intel Core i3). Processor speed, quoted in GHz, affects how fast it can crunch numbers. Anything above 2GHz is fine for everyday use, but gamers and video fiends should look for higher numbers, and especially for IntelÃ¢â¬â¢s Turbo Boost feature. RAM is the other thing that affects how fast your laptop runs. 2GB is an absolute minimum these days Ã¢â¬â and step up to 4GB (or even 6GB) if you can possibly afford it. Hard decisions Hard drives generally range between 250GB (miserly) to 1,000GB (1TB, gargantuan). These determine how much data, including music and video, you can store on your laptop. Always buy a little more storage than you think youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need, but donÃ¢â¬â¢t bankrupt yourself. External drives are getting cheaper all the time, and space-saving cloud services are increasingly popular. AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s MacBook Airs, and some high-end Windows laptops, have fancy solid state drives that are faster, tougher and use less power. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re also achingly expensive and come in smaller capacities. Screen and build quality Always try to get your hands on a laptop before you buy. Start by looking at the screen indoors and Ã¢â¬â if possible Ã¢â¬â near a window or outside. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll probably find that Apple and Sony screens have the brightest colours and best contrast. If you do have to buy from the specs alone, look for LED backlighting and Full HD for the best resolution, found on pricier machines. Ã¢â¬Ë3DÃ¢â¬â¢ is a buzzword right now and 3D laptops are already trickling out. While games and films can look stunning in 3D, the technology is still fairly young, fairly expensive and suffers from low levels of brightness and sharpness. Consume at your own risk. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t underestimate the importance of a good keyboard, trackpad or navigation nipple. Look for dedicated keys for mail, Web and especially media controls Ã¢â¬â they all make smaller keyboards easier to use. Open and shut the case a few times and hold it in both hands. How heavy is it? Does it flex or creak? How strong does it feel? While itÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to beat Apple for solidity and design, all the big brands have premium metal-bodied models, and Panasonic even has fully waterproof and toughened Toughbooks. In and out The best laptops have a choice of connectors, including multiple full-speed USB ports, HDMI sockets for linking to media systems and memory card readers. Some laptops will have DVD or even Blu-ray players, although these add weight and suck power. A built-in webcam is great for Skype, Facebook or FaceTime video calls Ã¢â¬â donÃ¢â¬â¢t worry about its resolution. Spare a thought for the battery powering all this techno wizardry. ManufacturersÃ¢â¬â¢ battery life figures are a rough guide, but take them with a pinch of salt and donÃ¢â¬â¢t expect to achieve day-long use without resorting to a socket. If you simply must have mobile freedom, choose a laptop with a replaceable battery and buy a spare immediately Ã¢â¬â they can be hard to find a year or two down the road. Ultrabooks Finally, keep an eye out for Ã¢â¬ËultrabooksÃ¢â¬â¢, a new term coined by Intel to describe ultra-thin PC laptops rivalling the MacBook Air. Expect machined etal cases, solid state drives and even touchscreen displays to make the most of new finger-friendly Windows 8. You can read our reviews of some of the first ultrabooks, including the Asus Zenbook UX21, the Toshiba Portege Z830 and the Acer Aspire S3. From G. NATARAJAN R-52/2, Thermal Nag ar -11, Thottilpatty, MetturDam -636406. To THE BRANCH MANAGER, State Bank of India, Mettur Dam-636401. Sir, Sub: Issue of new cheque book Ã¢â¬â change in address Ã¢â¬â intimation :-reg Ref :Acc No. 11194737290 I came to know that SBI is issuing new cheque books to customers at their last recorded address. I request you to kindly issue the new cheque books at my present residing address given below. G. NATARAJAN, R-52/2, Thermal Nagar -11, Thottilpatty, MetturDam -636406. Thanking You Yours faithfully (G. NATARAJAN) From G. NATARAJAN R-52/2, Thermal Nagar -11, Thottilpatty, MetturDam -636406. To The Principal, Apple Perks International School, Mettur Dam-636452. Respected Madam, Sub: Filing of Income Tax return for the year 2012-13-Bonafide Certificate Ã¢â¬â Requested Ã¢â¬â Reg:- I have to file Income Tax return for the year 2012-13. Kindly issue the Bonafide Certificate to the payment of School fees for my daughter N. S. Rithika studying Pre KG in your School for the year 2012-13 please. Yours faithfully (G. NATARAJAN) CLEANLINESS Introduction: Cleanliness is one of the good qualities. It is a part of our civilization. A man of dirty habits is far from civilization. So, with the progress of civilization man cleans himself more and more. He cleans his body. He cleans his mind and heart. He cleans all his action and manners. he cleans his soul. This will lead him to the highest form of civilization. But on the cleanliness of body, depend all other cleanings. Hence, cleanliness is considered so important. Usefulness: If we clean our bodies and limbs we will be free form many kinds of disease. Clean food cooked in the clean pot and served in the clean dishes, will give us health and happiness. If we clean our bodies regularly, our complexion will be brighter. We will look fit and smart. If we wear clean dress our mind will be happy. Cleanliness gives us a cheerful mind. We are more interested to write on a clean khata than on a dirty one. Hence, we write more and better. We like to read clean books. Hence, we read more and understand better. So, cleanliness brings us progress and improvement in all fields of activities and in all spheres of life. By cleanliness of body and limbs, cleanliness of all our articles of use, cleanliness of our dwellings and soul, we gradually move towards divinity. Hence, there is saying. Ã¢â¬Å"Cleanliness is next to GodlinessÃ¢â¬ . How to keep clean: In order to keep ourselves neat and clean, we should properly take daily care of ourselves, of our articles of use, of our dwellings and surroundings and of our neighborhood. We should clean our teeth and tongues two times a day in the morning and before going to bed. Beside, we should clean our mouth properly before and after each meal and each tiffin. We should was our bodies two times a day with soap and water. We should clean our cloth and shirts with washing soap everyday at the time of bath. We should sweep our house off all dirts. We should remove the filth and rubbish into a pit, dug out at a distance for this purpose. We should clean our beddings and lay them exposed to sun and air. We should look to the proper drainage and sanitation work of our house and the surrounding. We should wash our house and furniture with soda and water once a week. We should advice our neighbors to be neat and clean. Because we cannot be perfectly clean, if our neighbors are dirty. We should wash our latrines and urinals everyday with dettol and phenyl. We should get our hair cut and our nails pared at proper intervals. These are some important to keep ourselves neat and clean. Conclusion: it is really a matter of sorrow that most of our students are dirty. It is very sorrowful when we think that they keep dirty. Though they read science and hygiene. To make our countrymen neat and clean we should put ideals in the public institutions. So, our students should learn to keep themselves clean regularly. How to cite Cleanliness, Essay examples Cleanliness Free Essays There were so many spot that got particle of dust. For example, we approach there so many unclean part from the first time we go in. Like the spot near the connecting door, there were so many dust there. We will write a custom essay sample on Cleanliness or any similar topic only for you Order Now Maybe rheum hotel can improve their cleanliness by checking their staff work after they finish their work or change their equipment into more modern one to make the room more cleaner. Because to some person who have allergic in dust, they will not satisfied stay in Rheum Hotel. Under the basin there were also some unclean yellow spot that we approached. We suggest that Rheum Hotel should more notice the unseen part such as corner of the room or basinÃ¢â¬â¢s under so that the guests will stay pleasantly. The window in the room is also dirty. We found some finger print there and oil-dust spot there. Our suggestion is Rheum Hotel should pay attention to the little things of their rooms like window because even a little things can drop down their mark in guestsÃ¢â¬â¢ view. Another thing that we saw on the first time we arrived at Rheum is on the table, there was a drink used spot. This is proved that Rheum Hotel really donÃ¢â¬â¢t mind their cleanliness because even in the seen spot they donÃ¢â¬â¢t mind their cleanliness. Inside the refrigerator we Olson assess that Rheum Hotel hardly ever clean it because refrigerator should be the most clean spot because it is a spot were the guest usually put their food. How can the place where you place your food become so dirty? In conclusion, we hope that Rheum Hotel will pay attention to their cleanliness because as a guest we really disappointed to their cleanliness aspects as there were so many spot that got particle of dust and unclean spot. So that we suggest Rheum Hotel to mind their cleanliness by upgrade their tool and equipment to the new one to clean guestsÃ¢â¬â¢ rooms or maybe Rheum can employ the internship students so they will work hardly because internship is part of their graduate mark. SERVICE According to us, Rheum HotelÃ¢â¬â¢s services is not really satisfying because they claims that they are a boutique hotel but in fact they service is far from what boutique hotel required. Usually, boutique hotel services are often individual and focused on offering their services in a comfortable, intimate, and welcoming setting. We disappointed because Rheum Hotel didnÃ¢â¬â¢t give us a services as we expected. The staff didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even sent us to the room or explain how to use our room card in the lift to reach our room. One of the most important factor that boutique hotel should have is the staff of boutique hotel should have sense of predict what the guests need or want. The staff should know in advance the needs and the requirements of the guests than Just responding it when the guests ask. From our experience, even we have ask they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t do it. For example, we want 1 more extra body towel and 1 more extra towel cause there was 3 of us in the room. But check-out time we didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get the towels that we asked. We also disappointed to the way Rheum Hotel treated us. We are student in TailorÃ¢â¬â¢s University so our expectation of Rheum Hotel is quite high. They treated us just as a students but not as a guest in the hotel. According to our complaint, we suggest that Rheum Hotel can employ more professional staff so Rheum Hotel can improve their services to the guest. Whether they can Just train their current staff to be a better staff of boutique hotel as they claim they are. How to cite Cleanliness, Papers
Monday, May 4, 2020
Question: Discuss about theIntention to Create Legal Relations. Answer: Introduction Agreements are not unique. In every place where there is more than one person, they must make an agreement. Among other elements of a contract, contract law require looks whether the parties had the intention to create a legal relation when they were making their agreements. For a thorough analysis, this paper will use a case study of Caro and Max to look at the application of intention to create legal relations.' Carol and Max Case The main issue in this question is under intention to create legal obligations in a contract. English law requires that there must be an intention for the parties to be legally bound by their agreement. The law of contract uses tests that the courts apply to determine whether the parties intended to be bound by their promises legally. One of the tests is the courts take an objective approach This test looks at what the individuals said and did, plus what transpired after the agreement. Lord Clarke said Whether there is a binding contract between the parties and, if so, upon what terms depends upon what they have agreed. It depends not upon their subjective state of mind, but upon a consideration of what was communicated between them by words or conduct, and whether that leads objectively to a conclusion that they intended to create legal relations and had agreed upon all the terms which they regarded or the law requires as essential for the formation of legally binding relations. The reason why courts use this approach is that the parties disputes come after finalizing their agreements. The objective approach is not much difference with what courts call a reasonable mans perspective. Objective approach relies on two distinctions; agreements originating from a domestic or social setting, and agreements coming from commercial context. Where agreement seems to have been made within social and domestic settings, the presumption is that the parties never meant to create a legally binding agreement. For example, in the case Jones v Padavatton, the court found that the agreement was not enforceable. In most cases, family agreements like father and son or husband a wife follow this course. However, sometimes this presumption extends to agreements between friends or workmates. A good example is the case of Hadley v Kemp, the court stated that an oral agreement needed to be spoken with the intention to bind the parties legally, but since the parties had bee n acquaintances back from their school days, their relationship was distancing from that of business. So there was no cost sharing of the profits. However, at some point, the court can quash this assumption. This case happens when the parties designate a clear indication of an intention to be bound. The court considers three things. One is the manifested intentions, the content of the agreement and lastly, the facts encompassing the case. For instance; where commercial matters encompass the agreement. In Simpkins v. Pays the court found the agreement binding. This case concerned a Lodger suing a Woman and her granddaughter after she refused to share the prize yet they had played together. A similar decision was held for Archbishop Ermogenous. The considered the issue of PAYE deductions and salary, these were used to give an insight that there was employment and therefore the parties intended to have a legal binding agreement. Where the agreement arises from a commercial environment, the presumption is that the parties intended to create a legal relationship. A helpful example is the case of Esso Petroleum Ltd v Commissioners of Customs and Excise. This case developed after Esso started a sales promotion program whereby they offered garage owners a free World Cup coin for every four gallons of petrol. The Customs and Excise were concerned with their operation and wanted to claim the purchase tax on the sale of the coins. The House of Lords concluded that Esso had adopted the method as a way to gain more sales, meaning there was an intention to create a legal enforcement and were supposed to pay tax. Likewise, in comparison with to the case of Caro and Max, it can be argued that their agreement is legally binding. Taking the example of Esso Petroleum, Max wanted to increase his sales, so the agreement was all about business matters. Additionally, Miller and Jentz suggested that when looking for objective facts, there is a need to look at the words of the parties while negotiating the agreement, the action that took place after the negotiation, and the circumstances both prevailing and surrounding the transactions in question. This notion, makes the intention for an enforceable agreement very clear. First of all, even though they met in a social place and the root of their friendship comes from a social network (LinkedIn), the primary intention that drove Max to know Carol was for business and not other matters. A reasonable man knowing that Max looked for Carol because of Maxs business hardships would not think that the meeting was about anything except business. So with this reasoning, the meeting was encompassed by financial circumstances. Secondly, by analyzing what happened after the meeting particularly the act of Max sending Carol $1200, this makes a proof that the negotiation was a commercial matter. Thirdly, the court can apply the reasoning of Devlin J. If Max would not have sent the money if the agreement between him and Carol was not enforceable. Element for an Enforceable Agreement Between Max and Carol This issue is a matter of testing whether the agreement between Max and Carol contained all the elements of a legitimate or binding agreement. To start, an enforceable agreement should encompass an offer made by the offeror, andd the offeree replying with acceptance. An offer constitutes three elements. Common law dictates that an offerer must manifest its intention to enter into an agreement. In short, the offeror must also put a degree of seriousness and objective purpose to an effective offer. The intention is determined by that fact that from a reasonable mans perspective, he would see that the offerors action suggested an offer. For this reason, any offer resulting from anger, duress, or excitement will create a void agreement. A comparison of this case the judgement held in the Supreme Court of California, The mental assent of the parties is not requisite for the formation of a contract. If the words or other acts of one of the parties have but one reasonable meaning, his undisclosed intention is immaterial except when an unreasonable meaning which he attaches to his manifestations is known to the other party. This case arose from a contract of sale of a farm signed by the parties after having some distilled spirit. Zehmer later disputed the contract claiming that the intention to sell was a joke but the court ordered a specific performance since there was a valid agreement. So like this case, Carol would not have been joking by presenting the work outline and requesting via an email written confirmation. Another requirement of an offer that should also be in Max should include is the definiteness of the terms. A clear outline of this states that an offer is an act or a statement that proposes definite terms and permits the other party to create a contract by accepting those terms.  After an offer has been made, it would need to be accepted by the offeree as presented by the offeror so that it can become an agreement. And like an offer, acceptance should demonstrate a manifestation of the willingness to be bound by the agreement. In addition, the law of contract states that acceptance must be unequivocal and it should be communicated to the offeror. Like as seen above, Carol accepted the offer when she called Max the day after their meeting when she called to tell Max that she has accepted the offer. Denning LJ ruled on acceptance through a phone or telex. This decision set a guidance regarding on the acceptance of a contracts where parties are at a distance. As a summary, it simply states that where means telecommunication are used in indication acceptance, and the methods of acceptance are instantaneous, acceptance is then deemed communicated as soon as the offeror receives the communication from the offeree. That is to say, Carol accepted Max offer the moment she called him and communicated of her acceptance. Acceptance of a contract can also occur through the conducts of the parties. If Max misinterpreted the email (wanting also to have a written record of this arrangement with Max, Carol emails him on Thursday evening) and paid her the $1200, and Carol didnt take action to return the money, it can be said that Carol accepted the contract by estoppel. Another requirement of an agreement is considerations. The rules of consideration were set by Patteson J as, Consideration must be of value and involve benefit or detriment This issue arose shortly after the detat of Thomas. Before dying, he shown the interest to have his wife to use the house, the executor of the will made an agreement with the wife that the wife would pay 1/year for the husbands desire. Later the wife refused to pay and the executor commenced suit. The judge held that the deceased desire was not satisfactory consideration. Conclusion An enforceable agreement does not only rely on an offer, acceptance, and consideration. The law also requires the parties intention to create a legally binding contract. However, people should be very careful while dealing with friends and family relative. There is a high chance that the court will regard an unwritten agreement not binding the dispute comes from friends or family relative. Biography Stone, Richard, James Devenney, and Ralph Cunnington. 2011. Text, Cases And Materials On Contract Law. 2nd ed. London: Routeldge. O'Sullivan, J. and Hilliard, J. 2016. The law of contract. 7th ed. Oxford University Press. Mason, J. 2016. Construction Law. 1st ed. Routledge Miller, R. and Jentz, G. 2010. Business law today. 9th ed. Mason, Ohio [u.a.]: South-Western Cengage Learning. Meiners, R.E., Ringleb A.H., Frances L., Edwards F.E.,2016. Legal environment of business. 13th ed. [. Mason, Ohio [u.a.]: Cengage Learning. Cases Coward v Motor Insurers Bureau. 1962 1 All ER 531 Entores Ltd v Miles Far East Corporation. 1955 EWCA Civ 3 Entorres v Miles Far East. 1955 2 QB 327 Court of Appeal HadleyvKemp.1999 EMLR 589 Hartog v Colin Shields. 1939 3 All ER 566. Jones v Padavatton. 1968 EWCA Civ 4 Lucy v. Zehmer, 196 Va. 493, 84 S.E.2d 516 (1954). Parker v Clark. 1960 1 WLR 286. RTS Flexible Systems Limited v Molkerei Alois Muller GmbH. 2010 UKSC 14 Scientific Elec. Co., Inc. v. ADG Park Constr. Group, LLC, 2013 N.Y. Slip Op 31251 (Sup. Ct. 2013). Simpkins v Pays. 1955 1 WLR 975 Queen's Bench Division Thomas v Thomas (1842) 2 QB 851
Sunday, March 29, 2020
Compare and Contrast of Cult and Religion Essay Religion is a sociological device used to protect its members, and it offers them a common system of belief. Religion, whether it is Christianity, Taoism, Judaism, or Hinduism is a set of commonly shared beliefs which bring many people together. Religions usually teach a code of morality with an emphasis on a higher supernatural entity. They give examples and role models for people to follow. Religion, although having nearly the same definition as a cult, has a positive connotation. Society alone has defined these connotative differences between cult and religion. The word, cult, has a negative connotation which reflects the rejection of the populace in which it exists. The word cult is often used to express disapproval of a scorned religion different from one's own. A cult is defined as; "...a system of religious worship..." or "...a creed or sect..."(The New Lexicon Webster's Dictionary of the English Language) While the dictionary definition of religion is, "...man's expression of his acknowledgment of the divine..." or "...a system of beliefs and practices relating to the sacred and uniting its adherents in a community..." (The New Lexicon Webster's Dictionary of the English Language) The two words are synonymous by definition, but the ways in which they are used contrast because of their differing connotations. Once a group is labeled a cult it is subjected to some form of prosecution. One group will attack another, either because they simply feel they are right and the other group's belief system must therefore be wrong. The group becomes an outlier and is banished, censured, or ostrasized. When labeled a cult like the branch Davidians of Waco, Texas the group is subject to infiltration and forced collapse. Only the connotations differentiate these two words from one another. Morgan Glines October 9, 1996 English AP Compare And Contrast Of Cult And Religion Essay Essays - Compare and Contrast of Cult and Religion Essay Religion is a sociological device used to protect its members, and it offers them a common system of belief. Religion, whether it is Christianity, Taoism, Judaism, or Hinduism is a set of commonly shared beliefs which bring many people together. Religions usually teach a code of morality with an emphasis on a higher supernatural entity. They give examples and role models for people to follow. Religion, although having nearly the same definition as a cult, has a positive connotation. Society alone has defined these connotative differences between cult and religion. The word, cult, has a negative connotation which reflects the rejection of the populace in which it exists. The word cult is often used to express disapproval of a scorned religion different from one's own. A cult is defined as; "...a system of religious worship..." or "...a creed or sect..."(The New Lexicon Webster's Dictionary of the English Language) While the dictionary definition of religion is, "...man's expression of his acknowledgment of the divine..." or "...a system of beliefs and practices relating to the sacred and uniting its adherents in a community..." (The New Lexicon Webster's Dictionary of the English Language) The two words are synonymous by definition, but the ways in which they are used contrast because of their differing connotations. Once a group is labeled a cult it is subjected to some form of prosecution. One group will attack another, either because they simply feel they are right and the other group's belief system must therefore be wrong. The group becomes an outlier and is banished, censured, or ostrasized. When labeled a cult like the branch Davidians of Waco, Texas the group is subject to infiltration and forced collapse. Only the connotations differentiate these two words from one another. Morgan Glines October 9, 1996 English AP
Saturday, March 7, 2020
A comparsion Between Modern Day Soilders and Medieval Knights essays In Medieval Times, A Knight was a mounted man-at-arms of medieval Europe. He served a king or other feudal superior, usually in return for the tenure of a tract of land, but sometimes he served his lord for money. The knight was generally a man of noble birth who had served in the lower ranks as page and squire before being ceremoniously inducted into knighthood by his superior. At his induction the knight usually swore to be brave, loyal, and courteous and to protect the defenseless. After the 15th century, knighthood was conferred on civilians as a reward for public services. A knight in armor would present a very strange appearance on a modern battlefield. His prancing steed and metal coat of mail, the heavy iron helmet that covered his head, the shield that he carried on his left arm, his lance and shining sword-all of these belong to bygone days and have little place among the swift airplanes, the rapid-shooting automatic weapons, and the scorching flame-throwers of modern warfare. Knighthood flourished before the time of guns and gunpowder when battles still were won by hand-to-hand conflicts of heavy-armored knights. Even in peacetime knights looked for conflicts in which to engage. Fighting was almost an everyday occurrence, and the common people generally could not protect themselves against an invading foe. In times of danger they fled to the castles or strongholds owned by the nobles. To obtain protection the poorer folk became the serfs or villains of their powerful neighbors, and those in turn were the vassals of those still more powerful. The institution of knighthood In modern-day Britain, knighthood is an honor conferred by the monarch on both men and women in recognition of outstanding personal merit. The knight is usually created through appointment to an order of knighthood. The title sir or dame is prefixed to his or her first name ...
Thursday, February 20, 2020
What is the role of Seaport Terminals in Maritime Transportation - Assignment Example Port terminals are where goods are brought, loaded and unloaded and distributed to wherever they have to be sent. Seaport terminals provide service to container vessels and other sea vessels like barges and feeder vessels used in commercial fishing. Seaports serve international and global firms and have a role to play in international trade as a big bulk of world trade is transported by ship (Frankel, 1987 cited in Stevens, 1999, p. 43). Globalization has affected many world developments such as regional integration of countries like the European Union, the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the establishment of the World Trade Organization, and the homogenization of the world economy, to name a few. All these provide expansion for global firms. They expand business, and they need seaport terminals because they demand movements of goods. Global firms have the whole world as its market field that they can offer a wide array of products and services. Firms keep growing and continue to build products that have to be transported and marketed anywhere and anytime. Seaborne transportation is the cheapest means of transportation for goods that have to be transported to many parts of the world. This keeps seaports busy all throughout the year. With these facts, it can be understood that seaports have a very important role in the supply chain of businesses worldwide. This can be to fulfil business-to-business or business-to-consumer transactions. With globalization at the helm of businesses today, seaports are connecting a worldwide traffic of goods of different kinds. Supply chain management excellence is crucial for customer satisfaction, at the same time customer satisfaction is critical to customer loyalty, with loyalty being critical for profitability (Reichheld 1996 cited in Flint et al., 2008, p. 258). Supply chain has to
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Impact of Taxes and Human Capital on Private Client Portfolio Management - Essay Example Private clients in portfolio management tend to base their decisions on the overall tax burden, which creates a disincentive to engage in activities taxed at a higher rate (Parkin 56). Tax based income policies are policies that control inflation like the rate of increases in wages and the associated increase in prices through tax penalties and incentives. One of the main objectives of portfolio is to earn returns on the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s investment. Others include accumulation and preservation of capital. Tax policies and systems are potentially essential factors that determine private portfolio management because they too determine individualÃ¢â¬â¢s portfolio choices. These choices include the decision on whether to hold stocks, how much should be invested, and the period of time to be spent on speculation before the clients sell their securities. Moreover, different states offer different tax levels for the various available portfolio assets as well as incentives to encourage investment. Moreover, the tax policies and systems have significant effects on the number of private clients who will exploit the available investment opportunities. In addition, most of the countries embrace a tax system that treats all investors equally and offer private clientÃ¢â¬â¢s incentives to stimulate their investments. Therefore, taxation has a significant effect on portfolio structure. There is clear evidence from research on how portfolios are greatly affected by tax rules. Similarly, evidence shows that human capital and other related tax policies and systems that the tendency of people to invest in portfolios depends on the investorÃ¢â¬â¢s perception on the tax-induced rewards, which are gained from investments. Whenever taxes increase in an economy, private clients become reluctant in investing because it becomes very hard to carry out any trade in a given location and therefore private investors tend to move to better places. Likewise, private clients have a tend ency of fearing direct investment in portfolios when substantial taxes are imposed by the government in order to reduce their expenses. Moreover, investors are quite sensitive to any increase or decrease in the marginal tax rates since this determines whether they will invest in portfolios or not. Introduction of transaction taxes by a government on trades and available investment opportunities has the ability to change the location of investors. Another implication of human capital on private clientÃ¢â¬â¢s portfolio is that adjustments in the supply of capital to these households are costly especially due to the opportunity costs forgone. Therefore, a private client is more willing to invest in portfolios when there his or her human capital has a high rate of return or when there is maximum productivity on the invested capital. Therefore, availability and existence of human capital increases the rate of investment into portfolios as opposed to incidences when the households lack human capital. Recently, human capital has been highly debated and discussed by scholars due to its significance in portfolio choice. Furthermore, introduction of methods of control by the government also affects private clients indirectly since an increase in the tax rate on investments results into a decrease in the potential private investors. In fact, a significant reduction on taxes or
Monday, January 27, 2020
Porosity Architecture in Public Spaces Introduction The connection between the built and the unbuilt / between the Ã¢â¬Å"indoorÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"outdoorÃ¢â¬ / between the mass and the void is a very sensitive and debatable topic. The experience of a space can be severely affected by the ways its edges are treated, i.e. by controlling how a person enters/exits the space. Transitional experience plays a vital role in overall feel and experience of spaces. Different types of spaces require different types of treatments on their edge conditions. A city needs to be imagined as a space occupied by diverse sets of people with diverse needs and aspirations. The quality of a city has to be judged by what it offers to its residents the right to live, move around and work with dignity and safety. Porosity is one of the many guiding factors in designing a space, specially public places, which are the key strategic spaces in providing the area/city its character. Not only does careful design of such spaces increase the aesthetic quality of the place, but also plays a major role in increasing the standards of functionality, safety, quality and many such factors under which a city can be categorised. Porosity, is one spatial quality that can definitely benefit the public spaces, specially in places like Delhi, where the individual is getting isolated from the community in his efforts to cope up with the pace of life that the city has to offer. Also, with the increasing gap between the two extreme income groups of the city, the spaces, which are meant to be Ã¢â¬ËpublicÃ¢â¬â¢, cater only to a certain section of the society, neglecting those which fail to fulfil the Ã¢â¬Ëentrant requirementsÃ¢â¬â¢ . Apart from giving spaces back to all the sections of the society, increasing porosity in community spaces can also act as a measure against increasing crime rates in the city, as it opens up the space to a larger section of the society. Topic: Porosity in public spaces Research Question: How can porosity in public spaces be increased to enhance their utility for the society in general ? Public Spaces Public spaces are an inevitable component of human settlements. Parks, plazas, roads, beaches, etc are typically considered public spaces. They are the common ground for people to interact with others, share knowledge or goods, or carry out their daily rituals, be it daily routine or occasional festivities. By definition, they are spaces that should be accessible to all the members of the society, irrespective of their economic strength. It was stated that: Regarding the criterion of access, public space is a place which is open to all. This means its resources, the activities that take place in it, and information about it are available to everybody. Concerning the criterion of agency, public space is a place controlled by public actors (i.e., agents or agencies that act on behalf of a community, city, commonwealth or state) and used by the public (i.e., the people in general). As for interest, public space is a place which serves the public interest (i.e., its benefits are controlled and received by all members of the society) (Akkar, Z 2005). Ã Ã Of course, these definitions refer to an ideal public space, while the urban atmosphere is not entirely composed of rigidly public and private spaces; instead, it is an amalgamation of public and private spaces with different degrees of publicness. Accepting that the relation between public and private space is a continuum, it is possible to define public spaces as having various degrees of publicness. Regarding the dimensions of access, actor and interest, the extent of publicness will depend on three categories: the degree to which the public space and its resources, as well as the activities occurring in it and information about it, are available to all; the degree to which it is managed and controlled by public actors and used by the public; and the degree to which it serves the public interest. Life in public spaces, not only has a function in the society as a whole, but it is also a rich source of individual amusement, pleasure and play. One criticism of the prevailing socio-functional approach towards urban public space can be that the individuals perspective is often disregarded. To what extent do city dwellers like to meet other urbanites in public places? Hardly any planner, architect or urban administrator seems to be interested in that question. Planners and city councils are eager to speak about public spaces as meeting places. They find it an attractive idea to conceive of public spaces as a unifying element where all sectors of the urban population meet. With the help of that image they can present their cities as communities, despite all the contrasts and differences. Most social scientists dealing with urban public space also tend to regard processes that take place in the public realm as a contribution to the social organization, as a fulfilment of societal nee ds. This top-down-view, however, neglects the daily users perspective. Do city dwellers wish to get together with all their co-urbanites? Everybody who has ever been in a city knows the answer: no, certainly not with everyone. On the other hand, it cannot be denied that at least some individuals derive great pleasure from being in public. Whether a space will function well depends on a range of aspects that include scale, use, safety and comfort, density and links. In many cases it is the individuals experience of walking or dancing down a street, and the quality of environment, that is the most important element. Design then becomes about maximizing choice and trying to provide for different individuals goals. Mitchell, D (1995) adds another dimension to public space by putting forward the point that public spaces are also, and very importantly, spaces for representation. That is, public space is a place within which a political movement can stake out the space that allows it to be seen. In public space, political organizations can represent themselves to a larger population. By claiming space in public, by creating public spaces, social groups themselves become public. Only in public spaces can the homeless, for example, represent themselves as a legitimate part of the publicÃ¢â¬ Public sphere is best imag- ined as the suite of institutions and activities that mediate the relations between society and the state (Howell 1993). Problems with public spaces Despite the resurgence of interest in public spaces, urban design and planning litera- ture has frequently hinted at the diminishing publicness of public spaces in modern cities. Some researchers have pointed out the threat of recent privatization policies, and claimed that public spaces, traditionally open to all segments of the population, are increasingly being developed and managed by private agencies to produce profit for the private sector and serve the interests of particular sections of the population (Punter, J 1990). Others have commented on the high degree of control now maintained over access and use of public spaces through surveillance cameras and other measures intended to improve their security (Reeve, A 1996). Still others have argued that contemporary public spaces increasingly serve a homogenous public and promote social filtering. These open-access public spaces are precious because they enable city residents to move about and engage in recreation and face-to-face communication. But, because an open-access space is one everyone can enter, public spaces are classic sites for tragedy, to invoke Garrett Hardins famous metaphor for a commons (H, Garrrett 1968, cited Ellickson, R 1996) A space that all can enter, however, is a space that each is tempted to abuse. Societies therefore impose rules-of-the-road for public spaces. While these rules are increasingly articulated in legal codes, most begin as informal norms of public etiquette (Taylor, R 1984, cited Ellickson, R 1996). Rules of proper street behaviour are not an impediment to freedom, but a foundation of it (Ellickson, R 1996) Oosterman, J (1992), in his journal Play and Entertainment in Urban Public Space: The Example of the Sidewalk CafÃ ©, points out that since 1989, several cities and towns in the Netherlands have invested millions of guilders in the design and redesign of plazas, streets and parks. These designs are also meant to have a social impact. Many discussion sessions are held about the nature of social life in urban public space and its function in the greater urban society. This is the case in debates among policy-makers and planners as well as among social scientists and architects. Although the concepts used in these sessions do not always deserve a prize for clarity, some characteristics appear through the haze: urban public places should be accessible, or even democratic places. Other participants in the discussion about public space do not share this belief in the possibilities of changing urban society by changing its public spaces. Richard Sennett (1990, p.201) for example is rather pessimistic in his latest book The Conscience of the Eye. People no longer seem to be able to cope with the social and cultural differences of the modern city. They maintain their network of personal relations within physically and visibly segregated social worlds: sealed communities as he calls them. According to Sennett, urban public spaces cannot bridge the gap between those worlds, even though they are supposed to do so. Today one cannot open a book about public space design without coming across a picture of either the Piazza San Marco in Venice or the Campo in Siena: two beautifully designed plazas referring to the romantic ideal of free, accessible public space, where everybody meets anybody. Comparing their idealistic model of a real public space with the contemporary city makes authors like Habermas and Sennett rather pessimistic about contemporary urban culture. The citys urban territory is too privatized and inaccessible. This pessimism is not surprising. Over time, the scale of society grew, the mobility of the population increased and new means of communication developed and disseminated among the population. These and other conditions led to different claims on urban public spaces Solutions William H. Whyte argues that cities should exert no controls on undesirables, including beggars and aggressive eccentrics. In his words:The biggest single obstacle to the provision of better spaces is the undesirables problem. They are themselves not too much of a problem. It is the actions taken to combat them that is the problem. The people have the right freely to assemble together, to consult for the common good, to make known their opinions to their representatives and to petition for redress of grievances. In their study with the Jagori, Kalpana Viswanath and Surabhi Tandon Mehrotra concluded that Womens ability and right to access and use public spaces is dependent on the kinds of boundaries imposed upon them due to nature of the space and its usage. Thus having a mixed usage of space is more conducive to free and easy access. Very strict zoning leads to separation of spaces for living, commerce and leisure. This increases the likelihood of some spaces being closed to women and other vulnerable groups such as children. For example in Delhi, we ( Viswanath, K Mehrotra,S) found that vendors selling everyday items make a space safer, whether in the subway, residential areas or bus stops. The local bread and egg seller gave a sense of comfort to women who returned home at night. Similarly vendors provided light and a crowd around bus stops which tend to become increasingly empty and dark as it gets later. But this phenomenon of safety provided by the hawkers is not understood by all govt authorities. Anjaria, J (2006) tells the story of condition of street hawkers in Mumbai. They are frequently described by civic activists, municipal officials and journalists as a nuisance; and are seen to represent the chaos of the citys streets and the cause of the citys notorious congestion. On the other hand, to others they represent an undeserved claim of the poor on the citys public spaces. This despite the fact that even a cursory look at the citys streets and footpaths shows that parked, privately-owned cars are by far the citys greatest encroachers of public space, and the greatest obstruction to the movement of pedestrians. However. to the self-proclaimed defenders of public space, the civic activists and the NGOs bent on removing hawkers from the citys streets, these facts are irrelevant. Neighbourhood by neighbourhood, the citys footpaths must be reconfigured, disorderly footpaths must be made monofunctional. The crime of the hawker is to contradict this dream. And, thus they have become a public nuisance because, by working on the street, they are engaged in an activity that contradicts the supposed universal ideals of the modern public space. The question may be how do we bring the ethos of privatized space that we have become used to together with the return to more democratic values that many people aspire to for the Millennium? Kath Shonfield in her recent contribution to the Demos series on the Richness of Cities (Shonfield, 1998) focuses on public space and what she calls the new urbanity. She promotes the urban right to roam and suggests change to urban policy that would include urban rights to access, extending public access as a principle of new developments, and re visiting the idea of the arcade as an urban design model to be explored. (cited Jon, R 1999) In order to shape the design, size and form of public spaces in town centres, it is necessary to understand their roles and functions. Public spaces in town centres can be classified in two broad categories: links and nodes. Links are roads, pavements or pedestrianized areas which constitute routes allowing movement between land uses and attractions. Nodes are cross roads where a number of links meet in the form of public spaces such as market squares or plazas. There have been different models of gender conscious planning adopted by cities to respond to violence against women and womens fear of violence. The broken windows approach focuses on zero-tolerance to crime, closed circuit televisions (CCTV) and an exclusionary approach to creating safer spaces [Mitchell, D 2003]. This approach criminalises certain kinds of people and behaviour such as gay men. The safer communities model on the other hand, puts forth a vision of making public spaces safer through activities, land use, social mix and involving users in designing strategies and initiatives for safer public spaces. These are seen to be more conducive to building ownership rather than the top-down approach of the broken windows. The safer communities initiatives emphasise activity, land use and social mix (Whitzman, C 2006, cited Viswanath, K and Mehrotra, S 2007) Stavros Stavrides (2007) says: Instead of thinking of social identities as bounded regions one can consider them as interdependent and communicating areas. In an effort to describe urban space as a process rather than a series of physical entities, we can discover practices that oppose a dominant will to fix spatial meanings and uses. These practices mould space and create new spatial articulations since they tend to produce threshold spaces, those in-between areas that relate rather than separate. Urban porosity may be the result of such practices that perforate a secluding perimeter, providing us with an alternative model to the modern city of urban enclaves. A city of thresholds could thus represent the spatiality of a public culture of mutually aware, interdependent and involved identities. Walter Benjamin, in his essay entitled Naples, explored the idea of vitality and variety in the modern city. The porous rocks of Naples offered him an image for a cityÃ¢â¬â¢s public life: Ã¢â¬Å"As porous as this stone is the architecture. Building and action interpenetrate in the courtyards, arcades and stairwaysÃ¢â¬ (Benjamin,W 1985). Porosity seems to describe, in this passage, the way in which urban space is performed in the process of being appropriated (Sennett 1995). It is not that action is contained in space. Rather, a rich network of practices transforms every available space into a potential theater of expressive acts of encounter. A Ã¢â¬Å"passion for improvisationÃ¢â¬ as Benjamin describes this public behavior, penetrates and articulates urban space, loosening socially programmed correspondences between function and place. Porosity is thus an essential characteristic of space in Naples because life in the city is full of acts that overflow into each other. Defyin g any clear demarcation, spaces are separated and simultaneously connected by porous boundaries, through which everyday life takes form in mutually dependant public performances. Thus, Ã¢â¬Å"just as the living room reappears on the street, with chairs, hearth and altar, so, only much more loudly, the street migrates into the living roomÃ¢â¬ (Benjamin 1985). Porosity characterizes above all the relationship between private and public space, as well as the relationship between indoor and outdoor space. For Benjamin porosity is not limited to spatial experience. Urban life is not only located in spaces that communicate through passages (Ã¢â¬Å"poresÃ¢â¬ ), but life is performed in a tempo that fails to completely separate acts or events. A temporal porosity is experienced while eating in the street, taking a nap in a shady corner, or drinking a quick espresso standing in a Neapolitan cafÃ ©. It is as if acts are both separated and connected through temporal passages that represe nt the precarious fleeting experience of occasion. Everyday occasions thus seem to shift and rearrange rhythms and itineraries of use (de Certeau 1984). only located in spaces that communicate through passages (Ã¢â¬Å"poresÃ¢â¬ ), but life is performed in a tempo that fails to completely separate acts or events. A temporal porosity is experienced while eating in the street, taking a nap in a shady corner, or drinking a quick espresso. It is as if acts are both separated and connected through temporal passages that represent the precarious fleeting experience of occasion. Everyday occasions thus seem to shift and rearrange rhythms and itineraries of use (de Certeau 1984, cited Stavrides, S 2007) According to Starvides, Porosity may therefore be considered an experience of habitation, which articulates urban life while it also loosens the borders which are erected to preserve a strict spatial and temporal social order. Thresholds, thus play an important role in materialising the play of connection and sepration between spaces. A study of thresholds can help reveal the actual correspondence and interdependence between spatial identities. In post-colonial Asian cities like Hong Kong similar conditions of urban porosity exist. Hong Kongs urban environment is devoid of the cultural conditions that mark the traditional world cities of the West. There are no memorable public spaces, no refined residential fabric, and no exemplary monuments to religion, politics, art, knowledge or culture. Ã¢â¬Å"Urban life in Hong Kong is traditionally linear in form. The roles of parks, piazzas and gardens in Hong Kong take on functions that change with the time of the day. They are by nature multipurpose spaces, festival grounds, concert sites, and improvised sports arenas. While these open spaces are fully utilized in key times, they lack any identity and are usually barren and lifeless when not in use.Ã¢â¬ (Lu, L 2005)
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Diversification Economy in Las Vegas Ã¢â¬Å"Las Vegas is lagging behind many cities in the recovery because we were in much worse shape than most cities,Ã¢â¬ David Christianson, who is a TCA 449 professor in University of Nevada, Las Vegas who is a knowledgeable international tourism professor said so in my personal interview, Ã¢â¬Å"Since we are a mono economy, any kind of diversification would be helpful. Ã¢â¬ The dominating economy in Las Vegas are from gaming, tourism, convention and meeting, which then could support and develop the restaurant industry. Therefore, the economy of Las Vegas needs diversification to develop deeply.The economy of Las Vegas relies on consumer spending; however it has not yet recovered since the economic crisis in 2008, this is due to that this city relies so much on discretionary spending which lead to the result that its recovery will be slower than the rest of the country. For this reason, Las Vegas needs diversification economy moreover needs to seek some environmental-friendly industries that will not bring burden to the gambling town environment. Diversification economy wills bring more profit, government revenues, export income and employment.Many people said that tough Las Vegas need diversification economy, there is no industry fit for Las Vegas. They think if we want to set up new industry in Las Vegas will cost much money and get a little bit benefit. Anyway, the diversification economy is the best way to annihilate poverty. The diversification economy in Las Vegas can bring many benefits. The first thing can increase economy. The social development pattern let us know the growth of economy is not everything gets development, but it is the heart of development.The economy development is the best way to solve unemployment crisis, it can provide more job for people, at the same time, and people can get higher salary. People have money will promote the consumption level. Moreover, it is means higher tax rate. Becaus e of higher tax rate, the government will have more budgets. Therefore, people will have better hospital, better university, and better public utility. And also the government will promote the development of infrastructure and manufacturing.Someone will say lots of investment can increase economy, but this is not a persistent thing. We know that the American housing crisis is a negative example. If we want to make our Las Vegas become rich city must set up some real industry can make money for Las Vegas, according to Henny, from his essay Ã¢â¬Å"China land price fall threatens local financesÃ¢â¬ , he said most small cities, poor cities, they lack of diversification economy. The heart of development is economy, if we donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a good economy how we can develop entertainment, education, and tourist industry.Chinese always say economy is the foundation of a large building, if the foundation not good, the building will collapse, when the building collapsed if we want to rebuil d it, we need pay more money and attention to rebuild it. It is the reason why the Chinese increase rapidly. Diversification economy in Las Vegas can promote the equity among people. Diversification economy brings many job and higher salary. Therefore, the gap between rich and poor will be shortened. Moreover, it will promote the benign competition. The equity can create a good social environment in Las Vegas.It will reduce crime, less beggar and also make people have a better situation in heart. The happiness will at a high level in Las Vegas. According to the UN general secretary Ban Ki moon in World Day of Social Justice in 20 Feb 2011 what he said is social equity not only the ethic, but also it is groundwork of social and countryÃ¢â¬â¢s prosperity. We cannot ignore benefit of equity in diversification economy. If there is high quality equity in Las Vegas, the right of culture, political, economy and education will get better protection. In other words the equity is the founda tion of harmony.The diversification economy also brings the stability. Firstly, is the social stability, the high unemployment in Las Vegas could cause seriously threat to social stability. Consequently, Las Vegas should build more industry reduce the unemployment rate. Chinese think about the 8 percent economic growth is the best rate to protect the social stability. Secondly, is the economic stability, Las Vegas only rely on the hospitality industry, it is not stability. Like above mentioned, Macao is exceed Las Vegas in hospitality industry recent years.On the other hand, hospitality has off season, when the off season comes, what can support economy in Las Vegas? In order to let us Las Vegas being alive, Las Vegas needs more different industry to support the economy, it is insurance for long term economic development. Las Vegas diversification economy will promote production capacity. If Las Vegas has diversification economy, there are many industries and factories, the quantity of products will increase. Meanwhile at the same time, Las Vegas will have more contribution for GDP in United Stated. It is means Las Vegas will have more budgets and expand the ity scale. I remembered I learned the definition of production capacity in my Chinese high school is that the ability of human beings to change the nature. If we have diversification economy in Las Vegas we will have a stronger ability to change the nature, we can use more nature resource make more products for the human beings society in the new industry and factory in Las Vegas. As you see, the production capacity which bring by diversification economy can be ignored. It is also a big benefit. The last benefit is widely known, of course, it is the employment opportunities.The diversification economy will bring many new industry and new factory in Las Vegas. Therefore, there are many new job opportunities for people in Las Vegas. On other hand, Las Vegas will attract many people come from all over the wor ld to find a good job and settled down in Las Vegas. It will promote Las Vegas become a larger city, if many people settled down in Las Vegas and work in Las Vegas. We always heard something like this we improve the employment rate this year from news or government report, but did you ever think about that what bring many employment opportunity?This is based on many new industries and new factories and then brings many employment opportunities. This is a simple principle, but always ignored by people. According to the Ã¢â¬Å"Report: Las Vegas needs to diversify export economyÃ¢â¬ written by Robison who is a famous author in Las Vegas Review Journal, The total export in Las Vegas is about 7 billion dollars and in the growing of export at position twelfth at time between 2003 and 2008 among 100 biggest cities in United Stated.Las Vegas is number 72nd among 100 biggest cities GDP, the contribution is almost 8percent in the total GDP of 100 biggest cites in United Stated. But the peo ple who live in Las Vegas, try know they should do something to save Las Vegas, they know Macao have more gambling scale than Las Vegas, Las Vegas is not yet gambling first place in the world. Therefore, people should think about to built a new industry to support the large city. Las Vegas needs to diversification economy urgently. I studied in Seattle for one year. In my eyes, the diversification economy in Seattle is very successful.For example, a lot of big companies in Seattle like Boeing and Microsoft. The big companies contribute for GDP have a great influence. According to Brad Smith who is general counsel in Microsoft said that employment contributed by Microsoft around 29 percent in Washington State in past twenty years. There are many industry in Seattle is very good. All I know that aerospace industry, information technology industry, bioscience industry, cleans technology, environmental industry and international trade in Seattle are the outstanding industries.In Las Veg as, we also can learn from Seattle, we should have some outstanding industries beside hospitality industry. If we have many great industries, we need more talents. Therefore, we will have good education in university. Seattle has a university named University of Washington; this university is a great university in the world. If we have diversification economy in Las Vegas the UNLV not just good at the hospitality major. Another example I want to compare with Las Vegas is Detroit. Long time ago Detroit named Ã¢â¬Å"AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s ParisÃ¢â¬ because in this city have many Gilded age building.Today, based on my sociology what I learned in Green River Community College, the pillar industry in Detroit include auto industry, iron and steel industry, airplane and tank industry, chemistry industry, metal industry, wood industry and shipping industry. But all the industries in Detroit are based on auto industry, this is a typical city which one is Las Vegas should to learn. We can set up many industries around our hospitality industry. In this way, we still the casino city and we have many industries to support the city.Sooner or later, we will defeat Macao and become the best hospitality city again with our strong economic power from our diversification economy. There is a company named City Center based on the hospitality industry to develop the high technology. They invented a kind of automatic door and plan to install this door for every guest room; moreover they use automatic technology on TV and many devices in guest rooms (CityCenter, Robison). Many company can leaned from City Center to develop the high technology for Las Vegas, for example we can use robots to cook food for customer and clean the guest rooms.If we have the hotel robots industry we can have more employment opportunities and we can sell the hotel robots for hotel. City Center also have a stone pit, they use the stone to build hotel. (CityCenter, Robinson) We can see many nature stone around Las Vegas we can use those stone make money. What industry is fit for Las Vegas? Firstly, the solar power generation is best one. We know Las Vegas has solar power generation already, but it is not enough. If the solar power can support the electric power of whole city, and also has surplus power to sell for other city, other states and even other country.Secondly, stone and mining industry. The countless nature stone around Las Vegas, this is the fortune of Las Vegas. We can mine the stone and use it build our hotel and also we can sell stone for other state and other country. Thirdly, the high technology is other good industry. We are in America, the high technology country in the world. We should take advantage of our high technology which we already have, and create new high technology to benefit people in Las Vegas. The last thing is the professional sport team.If we have professional sport team not only we can make money from sport game, but also we can make money from our spo rt team clothes, cap, cup and so on. In conclusion, the benefit of diversification economy in Las Vegas cannot be ignored. It is not just the economy benefit more over is sustainable development in Las Vegas. People need better life and stable life. If we have diversification economy, the education, medical treatment, and welfare system will have a great improvement. Therefore, we must have diversification economy in Las Vegas.